Aerospace and Ocean Engineering
University Exemplary Department
E. G. Paterson, Head, Rolls-Royce Commonwealth Professor of Marine Propulsion
R. A. Canfield, Assistant Head for Academic Affairs
W.J. Devenport, Assistant Head for Laboratory Facilities
C.J. Roy, Assistant Head for Graduate Studies
Fred D. Durham Professor: J. A. Schetz
Norris and Laura Mitchell Professor: R. K. Kapania
Professors: A. J. Brown; R. A. Canfield; W. J. Devenport; E. G. Paterson; P. Raj; C. J. Roy; R. W. Walters, C. A. Woolsey
Associate Professors: M. Farhood; L. Ma; L.S. McCue; W. L. Neu; M. Patil; M. Philen; C. Sultan
Assistant Professors: S. Choi; T. Lowe; G. D. Seidel; K. G. Wang; H. Xiao
Adjunct Professors: C. D. Hall; W.L. Hallauer, Jr.; K. A. Shinpaugh
Professors Emeritus: R. Barnwell; E. Cliff; W. C. Durham; B. Grossman; Z. Gurdal; O. F. Hughes; E. R. Johnson; J. F. Marchman; W. H. Mason;
R. L. Simpson
Faculty Affiliates1: R. Batra; S. Bailey; M. Cramer; G. Earle; M. Hajj; M. Hyer; W. Scales; D. Stilwell
1 Faculty with regular appointments in other departments
The aerospace and ocean engineering department offers two bachelor of science degree programs. Students in the department may major in either aerospace engineering or ocean engineering. Many of the course requirements for these degrees are common, because the two curricula share a broad range of common interests. Both programs offer a wide range of technical electives. Students with an interest in both majors may enroll in a double major program.
The objectives of both of the department's programs include the preparation of students for entry level positions and graduate study in the fields of aerospace engineering and ocean vehicle engineering. The department seeks to provide students with a strong background in fundamentals, including theoretical, experimental, and computational aspects of science and engineering, which will facilitate lifelong learning and the ability to pursue advanced study. It also seeks to provide students with a broad education in the aerospace and ocean vehicle fields encompassing fluid dynamics, vehicle dynamics and control, propulsion, and structures, and including an emphasis on design and synthesis in a team environment.
The department's curricula are vehicle oriented, with an emphasis on aircraft and spacecraft in the aerospace program and on ships of all types in the ocean engineering program. The department's systems engineering approach to these technologies makes them increasingly applicable to other fields, such as the automobile industry, high speed train design, and other transportation related areas. Departmental graduates find positions in these fields as well as with the aerospace industry, NASA, the Department of Defense, the ship building industry, and maritime agencies. Employers range from large, multinational corporations to small consulting firms.
Classroom studies employ modern computational techniques. Laboratory classes use the department's outstanding experimental facilities which include a large, research quality subsonic wind tunnel with a twenty-four-foot-long, six-by-six foot cross section test area and state of the art automated control and data collection systems, a 100-foot-long towing tank, a Mach 4 supersonic wind tunnel, a Mach 7 hypersonic wind tunnel, a water tunnel, and several other facilities.
The department encourages student participation in the Cooperative Education Program, which gives qualified students valuable industrial experience while working toward their engineering degrees. The department's required design courses often include multidisciplinary projects.
The Aerospace Engineering and Ocean Engineering programs are accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET, http://www.abet.org. The department also offers programs of study leading to the M. Engr., M.S., and Ph.D.
AOE students must meet all Curriculum for Liberal Education requirements and only certain "free" electives and courses designated as "P/F Only" may be taken on a Pass/Fail basis. Lists of approved electives including technical, math, Liberal Education, and other electives are available on the department's web page: http://www.aoe.vt.edu/undergrad/undergrad-advising/index-undergrad-advising.html.
Checksheets for degree requirements are published on the Office of the University Registrar's web site: http://www.registrar.vt.edu/undergraduate/checksheets/index.html
Undergraduate Course Descriptions (AOE)
2074 (ESM 2074): COMPUTATIONAL METHODS
Solving engineering problems using numerical methods and software, truncation and round-off error, root finding, linear and polynomial regression, interpolation, splines, numerical integration, numerical differentiation, solution of linear simultaneous equations, numerical solutions of ordinary differential equations. A grade of C- or better required in ENGE prerequisite 1114. Pre: ENGE 1114. Co: MATH 2224. (3H,3C)
2104: INTRODUCTION TO AEROSPACE ENGINEERING
An overview of aerospace engineering from a design perspective; introductory aerodynamics, lift, drag, and the standard atmosphere; aircraft performance, stability, and control; propulsion; structures; rocket and spacecraft trajectories and orbits. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites ENGE 1114 and PHYS 2305. Pre: ENGE 1114, PHYS 2305. (3H,3C)
2204: INTRODUCTION TO OCEAN ENGINEERING
An overview of ocean engineering from a design perspective. Ship types and geometry; stages of ship design; introductory hydrostatics and stability; hydrodynamics; resistance and propulsion; oceanography and waves; loads on ships; ship structural analysis. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites ENGE 1114 and PHYS 2305. Pre: ENGE 1114, PHYS 2305. (3H,3C)
2974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.
2984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.
2994: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
Variable credit course.
Two-dimensional potential flow, stream function, velocity potential, flow superposition, circulation and lift, airfoil characteristics. Two-dimensional airfoil theory and panel methods. Three-dimensional lifting line theory and vortex lattice solutions for finite wings. A grade of C- or better required in each prerequisite. Pre: (3104 or 3204), ESM 2304. (3H,3C)
3024: THIN-WALLED STRUCTURES
Review of mechanics of materials. Stresses in stiffened shell beams. Deformation analysis by energy methods. Multicell beams. Introduction to the matrix stiffness method including truss and beam elements. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites ESM 2104 and ESM 2204. Pre: ESM 2104, ESM 2204. (3H,3C)
3034: VEHICLE VIBRATION AND CONTROL
Free and forced motions of first order system. Free and forced motions of second order systems both undamped and damped. Frequency and time response. Introduction to control, transfer functions, block diagrams, and closed loop system characteristics. Higher order systems. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites ESM 2304 and Math 2214. Pre: ESM 2304, (MATH 2214 or MATH 2214H). (3H,3C)
3044: BOUNDARY LAYER AND HEAT TRANSFER
Concepts of viscous flows and physical properties equations of laminar motion with heat and mass transfer; exact and approximate solutions; finite-difference methods; transition to turbulence; analysis in turbulent flows. Conduction and convective heat transfer. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites AOE 3014, ME 3134, and Math 4564. Pre: 3014, ME 3134, MATH 4564. (3H,3C)
3054: AOE EXPERIMENTAL METHODS
Principles of measurement and measurement systems; standards, accuracy, uncertainty and statistical concepts. Practical electronics, detectors, transducers and instruments for aerospace and ocean engineering. Signal conditioning systems and readout devices; digital data acquisition, structures, structural dynamics, fluid dynamics, materials and wind-tunnel testing. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites AOE 3014, 3024 and 3034. Pre: 3014, 3024, 3034. (1H,6L,3C)
3094 (MSE 3094): MATERIALS & MANUFACTURING FOR AERO & OCEAN ENGINEERS
This course introduces the student of Aerospace and/or Ocean Engineering to the fundamental properties of materials typically required for structural design. The performance characteristics of metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites are presented and contrasted. Foundation principles underlying materials manufacturing are also presented with the goal of providing an understanding of how processing affects material properties and performance. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisite CHEM 1035. Pre: CHEM 1035. Co: ESM 2204, PHYS 2305. (3H,3C)
3104: AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE
Performance of aircraft. Analysis of fluid statics and dynamics affecting aircraft performance. Hydrostatics of the standard atmosphere and development of basic equations of fluid dynamics. Lift and drag. Aircraft static performance. Rates of climb, endurance, range, take off and landing, and turn performance. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites ESM 2104 and co-requisite ESM 2304. Pre: (2104 or 2204), ESM 2104. Co: 2074, ESM 2304. (3H,3C)
3114: COMPRESSIBLE AERODYNAMICS
Inviscid, compressible gas dynamics. Continuity, momentum and energy equations, shock waves, Prandtl-Meyer expansions. One-dimensional steady and unsteady flow, Rayleigh line, Fanno line, Shock Tubes. Method of Characteristics, supersonic thin airfoil theory and conical flow. A grade of C- or better required in each prerequisite. Pre: 3014, ME 3134. (3H,3C)
3124: AEROSPACE STRUCTURES
Aspects of structural analysis pertinent to the design of flight vehicles: aeroelastic divergence, environmental loads, aerospace materials, buckling of thinwalled compression members, and introduction to matrix structural dynamics. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisite
AOE 3024. Pre: 3024. (3H,3C)
3134: STABILITY AND CONTROL
Equations of vehicle motion. Linearized analysis. Estimation of stability derivatives, longitudinal and lateral-directional static stability, and control requirements. Dynamic characteristics including stability and mode shapes. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisite AOE 3034. Pre: 3034. (3H,3C)
3204: NAVAL ARCHITECTURE
Buoyancy of ocean vehicles. Hull geometry, line drawings, coefficients of form. Hydrostatic calculations, development of a computer program for hydrostatic analysis. Review and calculations. Intact and damaged stability of ocean vehicles. Large angle stability. Stability criteria.
Viscocity. Stress in a fluid. Basic laws of fluid dynamics. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites ESM 2104 and MATH 2224. Pre: ESM 2104, (MATH 2224 or MATH 2204 or MATH 2204H), (AOE 2104 or AOE 2204). Co: 2074, ESM 2304. (3H,3C)
3224: OCEAN STRUCTURES
Overview of surface ship, submarine and offshore structural systems, materials and loadings. Application of beam and plate bending and buckling theories. Frame and finite element structural analysis. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisite ESM 3024. Pre: 3024. (3H,3C)
3264: RESISTANCE AND PROPULSION OF SHIPS
Methods of estimating ship resistance; propulsion devices and their efficiencies; Resistance components; Froude scaling of model test data; Methodical series; Planing hulls; Propellers; Waterjets; Propeller design; Computer methods; Advanced marine vehicles. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites AOE 3204 and AOE 3014. Pre: 3204, 3014. (3H,3C)
4004: COMPUTER-AIDED CONTROL SYSTEM DESIGN
Computer-aided design and analysis of control systems for high-order linear systems. Stability and performance design criteria. Root locus, PID, lead/lag, and pole-placement design methods. Introduction to modern state-space modeling methods. Design problems involving aircraft, ship, space, and ground-vehicle systems. Pre: 3034. (3H,3C)
4024 (ESM 4734): AN INTRODUCTION TO THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
The finite element method is introduced as a numerical method of solving the ordinary and partial differential equations arising in fluid flow, heat transfer, and solid and structural mechanics. The classes of problems considered include those described by the second-order and fourth-order ordinary differential equations and second-order partial differential equations. Both theory and applications of the method to problems in various fields of engineering and applied sciences will be studied. Pre: 2074, (MATH 2224 or MATH 2204 or MATH 2204H). (3H,3C)
4054 (CEE 4444) (ESM 4444): STABILITY OF STRUCTURES
Introduction to the methods of static structural stability analysis and their applications. Buckling of columns and frames. Energy method and approximate solutions. Elastic and inelastic behavior. Torsional and lateral buckling. Use of stability as a structural design criterion. Pre: 3024 or CEE 3404. (3H,3C) II.
4064: FLUID FLOWS IN NATURE
Course designed to build upon and broaden a basic traditional engineering knowledge of fluid flows into areas concerning a variety of natural occurrences and phenomena that involve fluid motions in important ways. Drag of sessil systems and motile animals, gliding and soaring, flying and swimming, internal flows in organisms, low Reynolds number flows, fluid-fluid interfaces, unsteady flows in nature and wind engineering. I
Pre: 3014 or CEE 3304 or ESM 3024 or ME 3404. (3H,3C)
4065-4066: AIRCRAFT DESIGN
Analysis and design of various aeronautical vehicles and systems. A grade of C- or better required in each prerequisite. Pre: 3054, 3114, 3124, 3134. (2H,3L,3C)
4084 (ESM 4084): ENGINEERING DESIGN OPTIMIZATION
Use of mathematical programming methods for engineering design optimization including linear programming, penalty function methods, and gradient projection methods. Applications to minimum weight design, open-loop optimum control, machine design, and appropriate design problems from other engineering disciplines. Pre: (MATH 2224 or MATH 2204 or MATH 2204H). (3H,3C)
4114: APPLIED COMPUTATIONAL AERODYNAMICS
Development of computational methods for application to wing aerodynamic problems. Incompressible airfoil codes. Panel methods and vortex lattice methods. Finite difference techniques. Transonic and supersonic applications. Pre: 3044, 3114. (3H,3C)
4124: CONFIGURATION AERODYNAMICS
Aerodynamic design of flight vehicles, with emphasis on nonlinear flowfields and configuration concepts. Aerodynamic analysis and design for transonic, supersonic, hypersonic flows, and low speed high alpha flight. Includes case studies of classic configurations and aerodynamic design papers. Pre: 3014, 3114. (3H,3C)
Application of Newton's Laws to the dynamics of spaceflight. Two-body problem, Kepler's Laws, energy and time relations, orbit specification and determination. Orbital maneuver and transfer, patched conic approximations, relative motion, and elements of optimal maneuvering. Must have a C- or better in prerequisite ESM 2304. Pre: ESM 2304. (3H,3C)
4140: SPACECRAFT DYNAMICS AND CONTROL
Space missions and the way pointing requirements affect attitude control systems. Rotational kinematics and attitude determination algorithms. Modeling and analysis of the attitude dynamics of space vehicles. Rigid body dynamics, effects of energy dissipation. Gravity gradient, spin, and dual spin stabilization. Rotational maneuvers. Environmental torques. Impacts of attitude stabilization techniques on mission performance. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites AOE 3034 and 4134. Pre: 3034, 4134. (3H,3C)
4154: AEROSPACE ENGINEERING LABORATORY
Wind tunnel laboratory experiments related to subsonic and supersonic aerodynamics. Continuation of AOE 3054 for Aerospace Engineering students. Writing of technical laboratory reports; design of experiments. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites AOE 3054, AOE 3114, AOE 3124 and AOE 3134. Pre: 3054, 3114, 3124, (3134 or 4140). (3L,1C)
4165-4166: SPACECRAFT DESIGN
Analysis and design of various space vehicles and systems. A grade of C- or better required in each prerequisite. Pre: 3054, 3114, 3124, 4140. (2H,3L,3C)
4174 (ME 4174): SPACECRAFT PROPULSION
Spacecraft propulsion systems and their applications in orbital, interplanetary, and interstellar flight. Rocket propulsion fundamentals; advanced mission analysis; physics and engineering of chemical rockets, electrical thrusters, and propellantless systems (tethers and sails); spacecraft integration issues. Pre: 4234 or ME 4234. (3H,3C)
4214: OCEAN WAVE MECHANICS
Introduction to theory of wave motion in different water depth regions, including wave generation and propagation. Description of wave statistics and spectral representation for realistic ocean conditions. Wave forces on stationary structures. Nonlinear waves, wave properties, and methods of analysis. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites AOE 3014 and MATH 4564. Pre: 3014, MATH 4564. (3H,3C)
4234 (ME 4234): AEROSPACE PROPULSION SYSTEMS
Design principles and performance analysis of atmospheric and space propulsion engines and systems. Application of thermodynamics, compressible fluid flow and combustion fundamentals to the design of gas turbine and rocket engines and components, including inlets, turbomachines, combustors, and nozzles. Matching of propulsion system to vehicle requirements. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites AOE 3114 and ME 3134 or ME 3404 and ME 3124. Pre: (3114, ME 3134) or (ME 3404, ME 3124). (3H,3C)
4244 (ME 4244): MARINE ENGINEERING
Analysis of major ship propulsion devices (propellers, water jets). Integration with propulsion plant and machinery. Characteristics of marine steam turbines, nuclear power plants, marine diesels, and marine gas turbines. Shafting system, bearings, and vibration problems. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites AOE 3204 and ME 3124 or ME 3134.
Pre: 3204, (ME 3134 or ME 3124). (3H,3C)
4254: OCEAN ENGINEERING LABORATORY
Continuation of AOE 3054 for Ocean Engineering students using facilities and instrumentation pertinent to ocean engineering. Writing of technical laboratory reports; design of experiments. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites AOE 3054 and AOE 3264. Pre: 3054, 3264. (1H,2L,1C)
4264: PRINCIPLES OF NAVAL ENGINEERING
This course studies naval engineering systems and systems engineering processes with particular emphasis on: naval missions; combat system performance including radar; underwater acoustics and sonar; ballistics; weapon propulsion and architecture; weapons effects; ship survivability including underwater explosion and shock waves; surface ship and submarine balance and feasibility analysis; and total ship integration. Senior Standing required. Grade of C- or better required in AOE pre-requisites. Pre: (2204 or 3204), (MATH 2224 or MATH 2204 or MATH 2204H), PHYS 2306. (3H,3C)
4265-4266: SHIP DESIGN
Study and application of systems engineering process to simultaneous development of ship requirements, concept exploration, selection of ship technologies, and selection of a baseline ship design. Emphasis is on hullform, machinery, ship synthesis and balance, metrics and design optimization in the context of a ship design project. Baseline design selected in the first semester is developed in the second semester. This includes hullform; topside arrangements; internal subdivision and tankage; power and propulsion; auxiliary machinery, general arrangements, machinery weights, space, seakeeping, cost, risk, and overall balance and feasibility. A grade of C- or better required in each prerequisite. Pre: 3054, 3224, 3264, 4214, 4244. Co: 4334 for 4265. (2H,3L,3C)
4274: COMPUTER BASED DESIGN OF OCEAN STRUCTURES
Computer-based structural models for combined finite element analysis, limit state analysis and optimization. Torsion of thin-walled structures. Buckling of stiffened panels and cylinders. Eigenvalue methods for buckling and vibration. Incremental plastic collapse; other progressive collapse. Ultimate strength of large structural modules. Pre: 3224. (3H,3C)
4334: SHIP DYNAMICS
Analysis of motions of rigid body vehicles in water, including influence of added mass and buoyancy. Seakeeping motion responses in waves, wave-induced structural loads, random response analysis via spectral analysis, and extreme response analysis. Introduction to hydroelasticity and maneuvering. Must have a C- or better in pre-requisites AOE 3014, AOE 3034, AOE 4214 and MATH 4564. Pre: 3014, 3034, 4214, MATH 4564. (3H,3C)
4344: DYN OF HIGH-SPEED MARINE CRAFT
Introduction to the dynamics of high-speed craft, including surface effect ships, hydrofoil vessels, semi-displacement monohulls and catamarans, and planing vessels. Pre: 3264, 4334. (3H,3C)
4404 (MATH 4404): APPLIED NUMERICAL METHODS
Interpolation and approximation, numerical integration, solution of equations, matrices and eigenvalues, systems of equations, approximate solution of ordinary and partial differential equations. Applications to physical problems. Partially duplicates 4554 and 3414. Mathematics majors or minors cannot take both 4404 and 3414. X-grade allowed. Pre: MATH 4564, (ESM 2074 or AOE 2074). (3H,3C)
4414: COMPUTER-AIDED SPACE MISSION PLANNING
Design and analysis of space missions. Basic orbital mechanics and access between spacecraft and ground station. Advanced orbit visualization. Prediction of spacecraft position observation under constraints. Communications and link budgets. Terrain modeling and impact on performance. Constellation design and coverage. Orbital perturbations. Dynamics of airplanes and space launch vehicles. Interplanetary mission design. Pre: 2074, (4134 or ECE 2164). (1H,1C)
4434: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS
Euler and Navier-Stokes equations governing the flow of gases and liquids. Mathematical character of partial differential equations. Discretization approaches with a focus on the finite difference method. Explicit and implicit solution techniques and their numerical stability. Introduction to verification, validation, and uncertainty quantification for computational fluid dynamics predictions. Corequisites: AOE 3044 or ME 3404 or ESM 3016 Pre: MATH 2214. (3H,3C)
4974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.
4984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.
4994: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
Variable credit course.
4994H: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
Variable credit course.