Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation
Forest Resource Management
The Forest Resource Management option emphasizes the biology, policy, and management skills needed to ensure the sustainability of the many renewable forest resources on which society depends. Graduates manage the forested landscape to provide society a renewable supply of wood and paper products along with clean water, recreation opportunity, wildlife habitat, and environmental quality.
Forest Operations and Business
Forest Operations and Business graduates are well prepared for careers in private industry emphasizing harvesting and reforestation operations. Forest Operations and Business specializes beyond the Forest Resource Management option by emphasizing the operations side of forestry along with landowner assistance and management skills for people and business.
Environmental Resource Management
The Environmental Resource Management option develops professionals who tackle a variety of environmental issues in the forested landscape. The foundation of this area of study is sustainability with additional emphasis placed on water resources, forest soils, environmental policy, and wildlife management.
The Urban Forestry option produces graduates who can deal with the ecological and biological characteristics of the forest in an urban environment, as well as the managerial and political context within which forest management takes place. Special education, training, and experience are necessary to address the many and complex biological, social, economic, and political issues that are part of the urban forest setting.
Conservation and Recreation Management
Conservation and Recreation Management blends natural sciences, resource management, and social sciences disciplines and topics. Graduates provide high quality recreation experiences to ever increasing numbers of recreationists while protecting the natural environment on which these experiences depend. Emphasis is on the human dimensions of natural resource management.
Environmental Education (K-6) and Natural Resources Science Education (6-12)
Environmental Education prepares students to teach in elementary schools, while Natural Resources Science Education prepares students to teach Earth Science, Life Science or Agricultural Education at middle and high schools. Both options are intended as feeders into the Masters in Education at Virginia Tech, which provides necessary licensure. With proper planning, the Masters degree can be completed in one year.
Watershed Management option will qualify students for hydrology positions with the USDA and the USGS.
Undergraduate Courses (FOR)
1004: DIGITAL PLANET
Exploration of innovative geospatial technologies and their impact on the world around us, including how humans interact with the environment and each other. Roles of location-based services, global positioning systems, geographic information systems, remote sensing, virtual globes and web based mapping for environmental applications. Skills and techniques for spatial thinking and environmental decision-making. (3H,3C)
1044: INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATICS
Application of information science to environmental management. Role of information science, mathematical and statistical modeling, geospatial technology, database management, knowledge integration, and decision science in environmental decision-making. Skills and techniques required to assist scientists and managers with the challenges of collecting, collating, archiving, modeling, analyzing, visualizing, and communicating information in support of natural resource management. (3H,3C)
2004: FOREST ECOSYSTEMS
Living and non-living components of forest ecosystems, including plants, soils, microbes, and the atmosphere. Water, energy, and nutrient cycles in forest ecosystems. Relationships between forest ecosystem structure and function. Changes in properties and processes of forest ecosystems over time and in response to human activities. Capacity and management of forest ecosystems to provide goods and services, including climate regulation, clean water, wildlife habitat, forest products, and recreation opportunities. Pre: BIOL 1005 or BIOL 1105. (3H,3C)
2114: ECOLOGY OF APPALACHIAN FORESTS
Introduction to the natural history, tree biology, tree identification, forest ecology, management and forest types of the Appalachian region. Contemporary issues related to forest functions will be discussed including carbon storage, global warming, invasive forest species, wildlife management, fire, biofuels, agroforestry, urban forests, ecosystem restoration, clean water, recreation, and use of renewable resources. (3H,3C)
2124: FOREST, SOCIETY & CLIMATE
Role of forest ecosystems on the global carbon cycle, climate, biodiversity and economies. Anthropogenic impacts on forest ecosystems and their ecological function in the face of changing climate. Climate-related threats to global forests, including loss of biodiversity, deforestation, forest fires, and invasive species. Sustainable forest management for anticipated future scenarios. (3H,3C)
2134 (HORT 2134): PLANTS & GRNSP IN URB COMMUNIT
Modern concepts of sustainability changing plant use in urban settings. Fundamentals of urban horticulture and urban ecosystems. Philosophy of sustainability, urban forestry, urban wildlife, sustainable and community-supported agriculture, and innovations merging plant and ecosystem functions with building and site engineering. Multi-disciplinary emphasis in individual, community, regional, and global scales. (3H,3C)
2214: INTRODUCTION TO LAND AND FIELD MEASUREMENTS
Measurement of land and field attributes including geographic position, land distance, direction, area, slope, elevation and boundary attributes. Use and development of maps used in natural resource applications. Use of global positioning systems and geographic information systems in the acquisition and management of land and field measurements. Assessment of vegetation attributes with field plots. Use of computer software to manage and analyze data and present results. Pre: MATH 1016. Co: 2324. (2H,3L,3C)
2254 (HORT 2554): ARBORICULTURE FIELD SKILLS
Field observation, discussion, and practice of skills employed in the management of urban landscape trees. Hands-on experience with tree pruning, removal, pest control, fertilization, cabling/bracing, lightning protection, and climbing. Emphasis on arborist safety, professional ethics, and best management practices. Guest instruction provided in part by professionals working in the tree care industry. Pass/Fail only. (3L,1C)
2314: FOREST BIOLOGY AND DENDROLOGY
Introduction to the botany, physiology, genetics and silvics of important forest trees of North America. I Pre: BIOL 1006 or BIOL 1106. Co: 2324. (2H,2C)
2324: DENDROLOGY LABORATORY
Field identification of trees of North America with particular emphasis on trees native to the Eastern United States. I (3L,1C)
2414: FIELD EXPERIENCE IN FOREST RESOURCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION
Field exercises to develop skills needed to sustainably manage forest and environmental resources including navigation and mapping, inventory of timber and non-timber resources, soil and water conservation, forest and recreation management, forest operations and timber harvesting. (6L,2C)
2514: WILDLAND FIRE: ECOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT
Provide students with basic knowledge on how: fire has an impact on forest environments; the environment and weather influence fire behavior; wildland fires are suppressed; and fire is used as a land and vegetation management tool. The course will also provide students with the knowledge and training to qualify as a basic wildland firefighter (FFT2-Red Card). Extended laboratory sessions will provide practice in fire behavior prediction, prescribed burning techniques, and fire control methodology. Pre: BIOL 1105 or BIOL 1106, CHEM 1035. (2H,3L,3C)
2554 (LAR 2554): NATURE AND AMERICAN VALUES
Introduces students to the evolving relationship between nature and American society; emphasizing the ethics and values which underlie forest, park, and wildlife management. Students are introduced to contemporary land use issues and learn to articulate, defend, and critique the ethical positions surrounding these issues (i.e., wilderness, sustainability, biodiversity, hunting, old growth, suburban sprawl, environmental activism). (3H,3C) I,II.
2714: INTRODUCTION TO INDUSTRIAL FORESTRY OPERATIONS
The forest management operations carried out by the forest industry such as harvesting, site preparation, regeneration, silvicultural treatments, and stand maintenance. I (1H,1C)
2784 (SBIO 2784): WORLD FORESTS AND FOREST PRODUCTS
A socio-economic approach to examining the management and use of the world's forests, enhance knowledge of global forest resources and products, and understand the roles and relationships of key stakeholders. (3H,3C)
2974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.
2984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.
3104: PRIN OF WATERSHED HYDROLOGY
Study of hydrology in watersheds. Qualitative and quantitative principles of physical hydrological processes governing the movement, storage, and transformation of water on the Earth's surface as influenced by watershed characteristics, including human modifications. Pre: Junior Standing Pre: MATH 1206 or MATH 2015. (3H,3C)
3214: FOREST BIOMETRICS
Statistical, mathematical and computer tools for collecting and analyzing data used to make inference or decisions in applications of forest ecosystem science and management. Principles and practices of forest inventory and probability-based sampling. Derivation of volume and weight equations for standing trees. Measures of stand density and site quality. Forest growth and yield modeling. Organization, summary and conveyance of information derived from the data-driven applications into visual, written, and spoken materials of presentation. Pre: 2214, MATH 2015. (3H,3C)
3215-3216: FOREST MEASUREMENTS
Principles and practices of forest land and resource measurements. 3215: Measurement of distance and direction, size and content of felled and standing trees, elements of forest inventory, and sampling. 3216: Derivation of volume and weight equations for standing trees, equal and unequal probability sampling in timber inventory, site quality, stand density, forest growth, and yield modeling. Pre: 2214. (3H,3C) I,II.
3224: FOREST MEASUREMENTS FIELD LABORATORY
Field practice and computer analysis for collecting and analyzing survey data for use in forest management. Forest inventory and probability-based sampling, stratified sampling, double sampling, regression, and census-based sampling applications. Computer and geospatial tools for analyzing field data. Field assessment of tree and log contents, stand density, and site index. Collection and analysis of growth and yield data. Pre: 2214, 2414. (3L,1C)
3314: FOREST ECOLOGY AND SILVICS
Environmental factors affecting the establishment, growth, and development of forests; silvical characteristics of trees; forest community structure and function; forest ecosystem analysis. I Pre: 2314, 2214. (2H,4L,3C)
3324: SILVICULTURE PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS
Theory and practices involved in controlling forest establishment, composition, and growth are developed in a regional context. Formulation of silvicultural systems and the study of reproduction methods, site preparation, intermediate stand manipulations, and reforestation operations. Pre: 3314. (3H,4L,4C) II.
3334: SILVICULTURE FIELD LAB
Practice and observation of various silvicultural procedures, including stand and site evaluation, intermediate cuttings, site preparation, vegetation control, harvesting, and regeneration. Co: 3324. (4L,1C) II.
3344: FOREST FIELD STUDIES
Field observations and discussion of current forestry operations and practices. Junior standing required. A-F only. Pre: 2214. (3L,1C)
3354 (HORT 3354): URBAN FORESTRY AND ARBORICULTURE
Biology, ecology, and management of trees and forested green space in urban and urban-rural interface environments. Life-cycle management of landscape trees, including selection and planting, cultivation and preservation, and utilization and recycling. Urban forest planning, site evaluation, diagnostics, and risk management are emphasized. Pre: (2314 or BIOL 2304 or HORT 2304), (FOR 2324 or HORT 3325 or HORT 3326). (3H,3C)
3364: FOREST ECOLOGY AND SUSTAINABILITY
Survey of the forest, its environment, and its management including forest community structure and function, properties and management of forest soils, and basic silviculture. Partially duplicates 3314. I Pre: 2324. (2H,4L,3C)
3434: FOREST MANAGEMENT FIELD LAB
Field instruction and practice in forest management techniques, including tract and boundary location; tract and timber valuation; delineation of forested wetlands; pre-harvest planning; and writing sustainable forest management plans using financial, biological, and operational considerations. Pre: 3216, 3324, 3424. (3L,1C)
3454: URBAN FORESTRY FIELD LAB
Field experience in the observation, measurement, and analysis of landscape trees and their urban environments. Hands-on exercises in common arboriculture practices, including diagnostics, tree planting, soil and pest management, tree preservation and protection, pruning, and climbing. Co: 3354. (3L,1C)
3524: ENVIRONMENTAL INTERPRETATION
Interpretation theory and techniques; program planning and evaluation; role of interpretation in enhancing visitor experiences and protecting park resources. Pre: 2554. (2H,3L,3C) II.
3534: OUTDOOR RECREATION FIELD STUDIES
Field instruction and practice in measuring amount and type of recreational use, and resource impacts from recreational use. Field inspection and review of federal, state, local, and private recreation areas and management in Virginia and elsewhere. Pre: 2554. Co: 3544. (1H,9L,4C) II.
3544: OUTDOOR RECREATION MANAGEMENT
Outdoor recreation management objectives; land acquisition; use measurement; impact assessment; facility operation and maintenance; role of private sector. Pre: 2554. (3H,3C) II.
3564: OUTDOOR RECREATION PLANNING
Techniques of planning for resource-based outdoor recreation, including: estimation of recreation demand; wildland recreation classification and resource inventory; methods of public involvement; social impact analysis; state comprehensive planning; site design; and values questions associated with these techniques. Pre: 2554. (3H,3C) II.
3574: ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION SERVICE LEARNING
Introduction to key concepts in environmental education and teaching skills through lecture, discussion, service learning, and reflection. Training in internationally recognized environmental education curricula (e.g. Project Learning Tree, Project Wet), in class management and organization skills and in theory relevant to both teaching and learning. Students develop and conduct after school environmental education programs at local elementary schools (2H,3L,3C)
3714: FOREST HARVESTING
Principles and application of forest harvesting. Terminology, phases, function, and the interrelationships of people, money, machines, and environment. I Pre: 2214. (2H,3L,3C)
3724: FOREST BOUNDARIES AND ROADS
Application of basic land surveying and forest measurement techniques to the location, establishment, and maintenance of forest boundaries and roads. Consideration of stream crossings, best management practices, and costs. Pre: 2214. (2H,3L,3C)
3734: TIMBER PROCUREMENT
Analysis of the U. S. forest industry raw material supply process with emphasis on the evolution and dynamics of timber procurement systems and strategies. Pre: 3215. (2H,2C) II.
3954: STUDY ABROAD
Variable credit course.
3964: INTERNSHIP THROUGH DIRECTED FIELD STUDY
Variable credit course.
4014 (NR 4014): NATURAL RESOURCES ECONOMICS
Examination of domestic and international natural resource use, exploitation, and degradation problems, with special focus on use of economics to understand why potential overuse of natural resources exists, and what policy options are available to correct these problems and ensure sustainable natural resource use over time. Water, forests, fisheries, land and exhaustible resources. Permission of instructor may be substituted for the pre-requisite. Pre: ECON 2005 or AAEC 1005. (3H,3C)
4114: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT
An introduction to computer information systems used in natural resources management. Course will introduce students to the theory and applications of database management systems (DBMS) and geographic information systems (GIS). Uses, challenges, and limitations of these technologies in natural resource management applications will be discussed. Students will receive extensive hand-on instruction in the use of current software packages for DBMS and GIS. Pre: 2214 or GEOG 2314. (2H,3L,3C)
4214: FOREST PHOTOGRAMMETRY AND SPATIAL DATA PROCESSING
Films, filters and camera photogeometry; scale; measurement estimation; image processing; flight planning and photo acquisition; geographic information systems; spatial data analysis techniques and applications. Senior standing required. I (2H,3L,3C)
4324 (FIW 4324): GENETICS OF NATURAL AND MANAGED POPULATIONS
Introductory genetics with an emphasis on evolutionary processes relevant to natural and managed populations of both plant and animal species. Traditional and modern genetics, including quantitative and population genetics, molecular evolution, genomics, and biotechnology. Pre: BIOL 1105, BIOL 1106, (STAT 3005 or STAT 3615 or FOR 3214). (3H,3C)
4334 (CSES 4334): PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF AGROFORESTRY
Biological, social, economic, and technical aspects of agroforestry, training and technology transfer techniques, and application of forestry and agriculture principles. Roles of animals and fish, trees, and agricultural crops in agroforestry systems. Community involvement in planning and implementation of agroforestry projects. I (3H,3C)
4354: FOREST SOILS AND HYDROLOGY
Principles of forest soils and hydrology and applications to forest management. Forest soil development, relationships of soil and hydrologic properties to tree growth, and the management of soil and soil water to enhance fiber production. I Pre: 3314. (2H,3L,3C)
4364: ADVANCED SILVICULTURE AND FOREST VEGETATION MANAGEMENT
Advanced topics in silviculture with an emphasis on species silvical differences; forest vegetation management and control, herbicides used in forestry, their chemistry, toxicology, application technology; environmental considerations; tree improvement, individual tree growth, and stand dynamics as affected by intermediate silvicultural operations; implications of atmospheric deposition. Pre: 3324. (3H,3C) II.
4374: FORESTED WETLANDS
Classifications, jurisdictional delineation, and management options of forested wetlands. Relationship of hydrology, soils, and vegetation to ecosystem processes, societal values, and management with regard to environmental and legal considerations and best management practices. Emphasis is on forested wetlands in the southern U.S., but national and international wetlands are included. Pre: CSES 3114 or CSES 3134. (3H,3C) II.
4414: ADVANCED WILDLAND FIRE MGMT
Impacts fire has on forest environments; how the environment influences fire behavior; how computer programs aid fire decision making; and how fire is used as a land and vegetation management tool. Influences of weather on fire behavior. The course will also provide students with the knowledge and training to qualify as an advanced wildland firefighter (Squad Boss) (FFT1 - Red Card) and a Virginia Certified Prescribed Burn Manager. Pre: 2514. (2H,3L,3C)
4424: FOREST RESOURCES ECONOMICS AND MANAGEMENT
Application of economics principles and tools to forest decision making from the individual tract to large private and public holdings. Private and public landowner financial incentives and decisions, forest amenities, non-timber forest products, risk, multiple use, management and ownership trends, and sustainability are examined. Pre: 3324 or 3364, or consent of instructor. Pre: 3324 or 3364. (3H,3C)
4434: FOREST RESOURCE POLICY
Historical development of U.S. forest resource policy. Key issues in each of the major forest uses. Policy determination at the federal, state, and private levels. Policy conflict resolution. Senior standing required. Pre: 3424. (3H,3C) II.
4444: INTEGRATED FOREST MANAGEMENT PRACTICUM
Student teams apply accumulated discipline-oriented knowledge and techniques to a real forest resource management problem. A practicum in forest resource management and planning, applying multiple use concepts to solve a forest management problem. Senior standing required. Must be Forestry major. (1H,8L,3C) II.
4454: URBAN FOREST MANAGEMENT AND POLICY
Focuses on the planning, administration, financing and management of trees, forests and green space associated with urban areas and the urban/rural interface. It will include a study of the social needs and values of urban situations; urban tree/forest resource inventories; tree and vegetation ordinances; the development, financing, and management of tree maintenance programs; and community involvement, public relations, and urban forestry education programs. Senior standing. Pre: 3354. (2H,3L,3C) II.
4514: FOREST AND TREE PEST MANAGEMENT
Identification and ecology of biotic and abiotic influences on forest and landscape tree health. Developing a theoretical and practical understanding for diagnosing and managing pests and stresses of trees in both the forest and landscape setting. Insects and diseases that attack trees. Pre: 3324 or HORT 3325 or HORT 3326. (2H,3L,3C)
4714: HARVESTING SYSTEMS EVALUATION
Principles and techniques for evaluating harvesting machines and systems design, application, productivity, and financial performance. Pre: 3216, 3424, 3714, 3734. (3H,3C) II.
4964: FIELD STUDY
Variable credit course.
4974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.
4984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.
4994: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
Variable credit course.