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2007-2008 Undergraduate Course Catalog & Academic Policies

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College of Science

Biological Sciences

www.biol.vt.edustudent in lab/

University Exemplary Department
Robert H. Jones, Head

Distinguished Professors: A. L. Buikema; G. M. Simmons, Jr.; J. J. Tyson
Harold H. Bailey Endowed Chair: J. R. Walters
Professors: R. M. Andrews; E. F. Benfield; D. S. Cherry; J. R. Cowles;
K. D. Elgert; A. Esen; J. O. Falkinham; K. W. Hilu; R. H. Jones; F. M. A. McNabb; E. T. Nilsen; B. D. Opell; J. Phillips; D. M. Porter; C. L. Rutherford;
S. E. Scheckler; J. R. Webster; B. S. Winkel
Associate Professors: J. A. Cranford; T. A. Jenssen; C.B. Lawrence; L. Li;
S. B. Melville; D. L. Popham; J. Sible; A. M. Stevens; D. Tholl; B. J. Turner;
M. Valett; R. A. Walker; Z. Yang
Assistant Professors: D. Banerjee; J. Barrett; L. K. Belden; D. Cimini; D. Hawley; C. Finkielstein; J. Kuhn; I. Lazar; I. T. Moore; F. Schubot; R. W. Seyler; J. W. Via
Adjunct Professors: R. G. Benoit; C. B. Cook; D.M. Denbow; K. Duca; R. Greenburg; M. Greenway; M. Kowalewski; N. R. Krieg; N. G. Love; R. J. Mitchell; N. D. Moncrief; B. Mukhopadhyay; D. Rathore; A. Shoemaker; S. F. Vance


Overview

    The biological sciences curriculum is designed to provide a broad education in the fundamentals of the discipline: ecology, evolutionary and environmental biology; systematic and structural biology; and molecular cell biology. It also allows a selection of courses to prepare students for the health professions and for graduate training in ecology, environmental biology, genetics, microbiology, botany, zoology, molecular biology, and related fields. In addition, through interdisciplinary programs, students are provided the core background for employment opportunities in biotechnology, food science, bioinformatics, bio-business, and health-related industries.

    A combination B.S. will be granted to students satisfactorily completing the first three years of the core curriculum in biology and the first year of work in an accredited school of medicine, dentistry, veterinary medicine, or clinical laboratory science.

Preparation for Advanced Study

Graduate Study

    Students who satisfactorily complete the undergraduate curriculum in biological sciences or related fields may pursue advanced studies leading to the M.S. or Ph.D. in various branches of the biological sciences.

Preparation for Medicine

    The training afforded by the first three years (approximately 96 hours) meets the pre-medical training requirements of medical colleges that accept students with only three years of undergraduate work. It is strongly recommended, however, that all students complete the B.S. before entering medical school.

Preparation for Dentistry

    Dental colleges require a minimum of three years of college training for admission, but it is generally advisable for students to complete the B.S. before entering dental school.

Preparation for Allied Health Professions

    Schools of Allied Health Professions, such as nursing, pharmacy, medical technology, physical therapy, etc., require two or more years of college work for admission. Specific requirements are available from Career Services or the Biological Sciences Department.

Preparation for Veterinary Medicine

    Veterinary schools require a minimum of three years of college training for admission. Few students who meet only the minimum entrance requirements are accepted by veterinary schools.

Cooperative Education Program

    The Cooperative Education Program is available to qualified undergraduates in biology. Information on the program may be found in "Academics."

Major Requirements

    The requirements for the biological sciences major include, in addition to the university Curriculum for LIberal Education and college core curricula: Principles of Biology (6 hours); Biological Principles lab (2 hours); Genetics (3 hours); Cell and Molecular Biology (3 hours); Ecology (3 hours); Evolutionary Biology (3 hours); and General Microbiology and Lab (4 hours) or Plant Biology (3 hours) or General Zoology (3 hours); and biological science electives (19 hours including two 3000/4000-level lab courses). Cognate sciences required are: General Chemistry (8 hours); Organic Chemistry (8 hours); and General Physics (8 hours). Math requirements are: 6 hours of mathematical sciences including successful completion of Math 2015 plus 3 hours of Statistics (Stat 3615).

Minor Requirements

    Requirements for the minor in biology include General Biology or Principles of Biology (8 hours); Biological Principles lab (2 hours); Genetics (3 hours) or Cell and Molecular Biology (3 hours); Ecology (3 hours) or Evolutionary Biology (3 hours); and two 3000/4000-level biology electives (one with 3000/4000-level lab) for a minimum of 21 hours.

Options

Option in Bio-Business

    The Bio-Business option enables students to fulfill the requirements for entry into a graduate program in Business Administration after the completion of the B.S. in Biological Sciences. This option meets requirements for graduate schools as well as preparing the student for employment in technically oriented positions in business upon graduation.

Option in Biotechnology

    The option in Biotechnology is an interdisciplinary and interdepartmental program that draws upon the expertise of several departments in the colleges of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Science, and Engineering. Majors from participating departments in the three colleges may add this option to the B.S. degree. A series of core courses must be followed to complete the option. Specific academic plans should be developed by each student in cooperation with the departmental biotechnology advisor.

Option in Food Science and Technology

    This option is designed for Biological Sciences majors interested in pursuing careers in the processing, preservation, packaging, distribution and use of foods and food products. Students in this option will complete the basic requirements for a Biological Sciences degree and take a series of core courses in food science and technology that prepares them for careers in food science.

Option in Ecology

    The ecology option is for students working toward a B.S. in Biological Sciences who chose to emphasize Ecology course selections. Most careers in Ecology require training beyond the B.S. degree. The option is structured to prepare the student for postgraduate training in the many areas of Ecological study. Those in the option not planning further academic study will graduate with a broad ecological awareness useful in Ecology and other career areas.

Option in Clinical Laboratory Science

    Students who satisfactorily complete the Biological Sciences and the College of Science core requirements by the end of the junior year can apply for admission to an off-campus school of medical technology. The senior year is spent in residency at a hospital having a medical technology program and an affiliation agreement with this university. Students satisfactorily completing the medical technology courses will receive a B.S. and will be eligible to sit for the national certifying examination to become a registered medical technologist.

Option in Microbiology/Immunology

    Students interested in the microbiology/immunology option must meet the usual requirements for the B.S. in Biological Sciences. In addition, option students must take 12 of the 19 required Biological Sciences elective credits in microbiology and biochemistry.

Option in Pharmacy

    Students who satisfactorily complete the Biological Sciences Department, the College of Science, and the Curriculum for Liberal Education requirements by the end of the junior year can apply for admission to the MCV/VCU Pharmacy Program. The senior year is spent in residency there and the courses taken will transfer back to fulfill electives and biology upper division course requirements to complete the B.S. degree in Biological Sciences.

Satisfactory Progress

    University policy requires that students make satisfactory progress toward a degree by meeting minimum criteria toward the Curriculum for Liberal Education (see "Academics" chapter), toward the College of Science Core (see first part of this chapter), and required courses in Biological Sciences.

    Satisfactory progress toward the B.S. in Biological Sciences requires that a student:

    1) Earn a C (2.0) grade or better in each of BIOL 1105, 1106, 1125, and 1126 or the equivalent.
    2) Achieve an overall GPA of 2.0 and an in-major GPA of 2.2 upon having attempted 45 hours (including transfer, advanced placement and pass/fail).
    3) Upon having attempted 72 semester credits, students must have completed the following courses:
Biol 1105, 1106: Principles of Biology 6
Biol 1125, 1126: Biological Principles Lab 2
Three of the following:
Biol 2004: Genetics 3
Biol 2104: Cell and Molecular Biology 3
Biol 2704: Evolutionary Biology 3
Biol 2804: Ecology 3
Biology electives 3
CHEM 1035, 1036: General Chemistry 6
CHEM 1045, 1046: General Chemistry Lab 2
CHEM 2535: Organic Chemistry 3
CHEM 2545: Organic Chemistry Lab 1
MATH 1016, 2015: Elementary Calc. w/ Trig. 6
Credits
(41)

Undergraduate Courses (BIOL)

1004: BIOLOGY ORIENTATION SEMINAR
An introduction to academic and career planning for majors in Biology and students who may be considering Biology as a major. (1H,1C)

1005,1006: GENERAL BIOLOGY
Primarily for those not majoring in the life sciences. General principles of biology and their relevance to society. 1005: Cell function and physiology, nutrition, circulation and water balance in plants and animals, hormones, nerves. 1006: Muscles, behavior, genetics, development, populations, evolution, ecology and the life kingdoms. (Duplicates 1105, 1106). I,II (3H,3C)

1015,1016: GENERAL BIOLOGY LAB
Primarily for students not majoring in the life sciences. Laboratory experiments emphasizing observation and experimental procedures to investigate biological processes and phenomena. 1015: Cell biology and genetics. 1016: Plant, animal and environmental biology. (Duplicates 1115, 1116; 1125, 1126). I,II (2L,1C)

1044: LIFE SCIENCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY
Emphasizes development of an awareness and appreciation of biology as part of human history and how the biological sciences will provide for future environmental, technological, cultural, social and government needs. This information should assist students in selecting an area of career-oriented study in the Life Sciences. (1H,1C)

1105,1106: PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY
For students majoring in the life sciences. 1105: biological molecules, cell structure, metabolism, and reproduction; Mendelian and molecular genetics. 1106: animal and plant anatomy and physiology, ecology, and animal behavior. (Duplicates 1005, 1006). Co: 1116, 1115 for 1105. (3H,3C) I,II.

1115,1116: PRINCIPLES OF BIOLOGY LABORATORY
Emphasizes biological principles through investigative exercises and collaborative learning. 1115: cell chemistry, physiology and reproduction and genetics; 1116: plant and animal form and function, and ecology. Primarily for students majoring in the life sciences. (Duplicates 1015 1016, 1125, 1126) . I,II. X-grade allowed. Co: 1105 for 1115; 1106 for 1116. (3L,1C)

1125,1126: BIOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES LAB
Emphasizes biological principles through experimental design and collaborative learning. 1125: cell chemistry, physiology and reproduction, genetics and evolution. 1126: plant and animal form and function, and ecology. This writing intensive course is part of the Writing Across the Major option; these two laboratory courses plus three additional designated Biology courses will fulfill the Area I Writing Intensive requirement for Biology majors. Primarily for students majoring in Biology. (Duplicates 1015, 1016, 1115, 1116). I,II Co: 1106, 1105 for 1125; 1105, 1106 for 1126. (3L,1C)

1205H,1206H: HONORS BIOLOGY
Emphasizes biological principles through investigative exercises and collaborative learning. 1205H: cell chemistry and structure, energy transformations, genetics and microevolution. 1206H: macroevolution, plant and animal physiology, populations, ecology and behavior. This is a writing intensive course. Simultaneous enrollment in laboratory required. For students who qualify for the University Honors Program. (Duplicates 1005, 1006; 1105,1106). I,II (3H,3L,4C)

2004: GENETICS
Mendelian transmission, chromosome behavior and organization, gene and chromosome mutation, genetic properties of nucleic acids, gene expression and development, DNA technology. I,II X-grade allowed. Pre: (1005 or 1105 or 1205H), (1006 or 1106 or 1206H), (CHEM 1036 or CHEM 1056 or CHEM 1036H or CHEM 1056H or CHEM 1016). (3H,3C)

2104: CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Fundamental molecular mechanisms essential for the function of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. Topics will include: organization and maintenance of cellular structure, energy production, transcriptional regulation, protein synthesis, regulatory pathways, cell-cell interactions and reproduction. I,II Pre: (1005 or 1105 or 1205H), (1106 or 1206H or 1006), (CHEM 1036 or CHEM 1056 or CHEM 1016 or CHEM 1036H or CHEM 1056H). (3H,3C)

2204: PLANTS AND CIVILIZATION
The uses of plants as sources of food, medicine, drugs, spices, beverages, poisons, fiber, oils, and plant exudates. I Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1106) or (1205H, 1206H). (3H,3C)

2304 (HORT 2304): PLANT BIOLOGY
Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1106) or (1205H, 1206H). (3H,3C) Introductory botany. Form, growth, function, reproduction,.

2404 (ALS 2404): BIOTECHNOLOGY IN A GLOBAL SOCIETY
Introduction to the world-wide impact of biotechnology and molecular biology, including applications to plants, animals, and microorganisms. Explores basic concepts of genetic engineering, scientific and ethical issues, and public concerns related to biotechnology. Topics include: environmental release of genetically engineering organisms, bioremediation, safety of genetically engineered food products, transgenic plants and animals, gene therapy, and genetic screening. II Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1106) or (1205H, 1206H), CHEM 1015, CHEM 1016. (3H,3C)

2414: HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY
Structure and function of human body approached through the use of dissectible models, CD ROM dissections, computer simulations, and physiological experiments. Does not count as Biology elective for biology majors/minors. II Co: 2406. (3L,1C)

2504: GENERAL ZOOLOGY
Morphology, features, adaptations, and ecology of major animal groups, emphasizing major patterns of evolutionary change. I,II Pre: (1005 or 1105 or 1205H), (1006 or 1106 or 1206H). (3H,3C)

2604: GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY
Microbial structure, function, metabolism, genetics and ecology. The role of microorganisms in host/parasite relationships will be emphasized. I,II Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1106) or (1205H, 1206H), (CHEM 1015, CHEM 1016) or (CHEM 1035, CHEM 1036). (3H,3C)

2614: GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY LABORATORY
Introduction to microbiological techniques and procedures. BIOL 2604 may be taken as a Corequisite with 2614. Pre: 2604. (3L,1C) I,II.

2704: EVOLUTIONARY BIOLOGY
Evolutionary mechanisms, systematic principles, and theories of the origin and evolution of life. I,II Pre: (1005 or 1105 or 1205H), (1006 or 1106 or 1206H). (3H,3C)

2804: ECOLOGY
Fundamental interaction of organisms with the biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. Topics will include: physical environment and organismic interactions, concepts of population ecology and community ecology, ecosystems interactions, and environmental problems. Pre: (1005 or 1105 or 1205H), (1006 or 1106 or 1206H). (3H,3C) I,II.

2974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.

2984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.

3014 (ENT 3014): INSECT BIOLOGY
Insect biology provides an introduction to the science of entomology. The course covers the diversity of insects, their biology and behavior, the importance of insects and insect control programs in agriculture, and the effects that insects have had on human history and culture. Laboratory (3024) is optional. I Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1106) or (1205H, 1206H). (2H,2C)

3024 (ENT 3024): INSECT BIOLOGY LABORATORY
Taxonomy and ecology of insects commonly encountered. Identification of all orders and many common families. Ecological attributes of each taxon, including food, habitat, life cycle, and behavior. An insect collection is required. Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1106) or (1205H, 1206H). Co: 3014. (3L,1C) I.

3114: FIELD AND LABORATORY ECOLOGY
Experimental and field studies of population growth, competition, stressed ecosystems, plant distribution, and other interactions of plants, animals and microbes with their environments. Several required weekend field trips. II Pre: 2804. (3L,1C)

3124: CELL PHYSIOLOGY
Cell structure and metabolism, including enzymes, energy production, photosynthesis, membranes, nerve conduction, muscle contraction, and regulation of cellular activity. I,II Pre: 2104, CHEM 2536. (3H,3C)

3204: PLANT TAXONOMY
Systematic survey of vascular plants, emphasizing identification, terminology, classification, evolutionary relationships. X-grade allowed. Pre: 2304. (2H,3L,3C) II.

3254 (ENT 3254): MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY
An introduction to the roles of insects and other arthropods in the direct causation of disease in humans and animals, and as vectors in the transmission of disease organisms. The epidemiology and replication cycles of vector-borne pathogens with major medical and veterinary importance will be examined. Information will be provided on the biology and behavior of disease vectors and external parasites, and on the annoying and venomous pests of humans and animals. Mechanisms of control will be discussed II. Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1105) or (1205H, 1206H). (3H,3C)

3264 (ENT 3264): MEDICAL AND VETERINARY ENTOMOLOGY LABORATORY
Taxonomy and anatomy of insects and arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. Examination of feeding behavior and ecology. Emphasis on the mechanism of injury or pathogen transmission by each group. II. Pre: (1105, 1106) or (1005, 1006) or (1205H, 1206H). Co: 3254. (3L,1C)

3404: INTRODUCTORY ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY
A comparative systems level approach to the physiology of animals, emphasizing vertebrates: metabolic, temperature, osmotic, and ionic regulation; function of respiratory, circulatory, digestive, muscle, nervous, and locomotory systems; endocrine regulation and biological rhythms. Must have prerequisites or instructor's permission. II. Pre: (1005, 1006) or (1105, 1106). (3H,3C)

3444 (PPWS 3444): EXPLAINING MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY (WRITING INTENSIVE)
This writing-intensive course will enable students to improve both their own scientific writing and their understanding of the writing of specialists, scientists in other fields and lay readers. Topics include bacterial, plant, biomedical examples of major advances in molecular cell biology and biotechnology. Includes a review of current methodologies, in-class writing workshops and problem-solving sessions, mock press conferences, individual and team presentations, and individual conferences with the instructor. II Pre: 2104. (3H,3C)

3454: INTRODUCTORY PARASITOLOGY
Ecology, taxonomy, morphology, life cycles, pathogenesis, and host-parasite relationships of parasitic eukaryotes. I Pre: 2504. (3H,3L,4C)

3504H: HOSPITAL PRECEPTORSHIP
Cooperative course with Montgomery County Hospital. Students work and study in the various divisions of the hospital under supervision of physicians and other health professionals. Selection by Biology and University Premedical committees and approval by the hospital required. (6L,2C) I.

3774: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
Advanced study of the molecular biology of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, including mechanisms of gene expression and regulation, relative merits of experimental model systems, and practical applications in agriculture and medicine. II Pre: 2104 or ALS 3104. (3H,3C)

3954: STUDY ABROAD
Variable credit course.

4004: FRESHWATER ECOLOGY
Interactions of physical, chemical, and biological properties of freshwater ecosystems. Senior standing required. I,II Pre: 2804. (3H,3L,4C)

4014: ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
Discussion of ecotoxicological and philosophical issues in the development of standards for control of toxic chemicals in freshwater, including site-specific examples, application of current control methods, recovery of damaged ecosystems, and government regulations. Pre: 2804. (2H,2C)

4044 (GEOG 4044): BIOGEOGRAPHY
A survey of the field of biogeography. A study of the factors influencing the distribution of plants and animals approached from ecological, historical, and cultural perspectives. Human influence on biotic patterns, such as crop domestication, habitat alteration, species introductions and extinctions, management issues, and environmental change, is a primary force. Pre: 2804 or GEOG 1104. (3H,3C)

4075-4076: BIOINFORMATICS METHODS
Application of bioinformatics methods in biological research. Begins with theory and methods for analysis of proteins and protein families, and progresses to analysis of complex data sets including whole genome sequences and gene expression. Laboratory begins with basic techniques for information gathering and molecular sequence and structure analysis, and progresses to analysis of genome sequences and gene expression data sets. The laboratory component will provide experience in use of standard bioinformatics software and databases. Pre: 3774, BCHM 3114. (2H,3L,3C)

4104: DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY
Morphological, physiological, and molecular events in embryological and developmental systems, including regulation at the level of transcription, translation, and enzyme or hormone activation. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)

4134: EVOLUTIONARY GENETICS
Genetic variation, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, agents of change in gene frequencies, molecular evolution, mechanisms of speciation. Comparison of theoretical models with natural and laboratory populations. II Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)

4164 (CEE 4164) (CSES 4164) (ENSC 4164): ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY
Ecology, physiology, and diversity of soil and aquatic microorganisms; incorporates the significance of these topics within the context of environmental applications such as bioremediation, wastewater treatment, control of plant-pathogens in agriculture, and pollution abatement in natural systems. The laboratory portion of the course will stress methodology development, isolation and characterization of microorganisms from natural and engineered systems, and examination of the roles of microorganisms in biogeochemical cycling. II Pre: 2604. (2H,3L,3C)

4204: DEVELOPMENTAL PLANT ANATOMY (WRITING INTENSIVE)
Microscopic structure of cells, tissues, and tissue systems of vascular plants in relation to growth, development, and physiology. Writing intensive. Even years. I Pre: 2304. (2H,6L,4C)

4244: MYCOLOGY (WRITING INTENSIVE)
Morphology, ecology, classification and field and laboratory study of fungi: form and function, uses by man, plant and animal pathogens, and role in ecosystems. Writing intensive. I Pre: 2304. (2H,6L,4C)

4314: PLANT ECOLOGY (WRITING INTENSIVE)
Introduction to ecology of terrestrial plants including major plant functional types, behavior of populations, responses of plant communities to disturbance, vegetation classification, and ordination. Laboratory covers methods for measuring and analyzing natural vegetation, and setting up field and greenhouse experiments. This is a writing intensive course. Even years. II Pre: (2304 or 2804 or FOR 3314). (3H,3L,4C)

4324 (GEOS 4324): PLANT EVOLUTION (WRITING INTENSIVE)
Geological history, comparative morphology, evolution and systematics of pre-vascular and vascular plants. Focus on evolution of communities, adaptive construction of tissues and organs, and ecology of reproduction. Pre: 2304. (2H,6L,4C)

4354 (ENT 4354): AQUATIC ENTOMOLOGY
Biology and taxonomy of insects and other macroinvertebrates most commonly encountered in freshwater environments. Selected aspects of biology, such as habitat, feeding, locomotion, and life history. Identification of individual taxa, mostly at family and genus level. Significance of these organisms in aquatic ecology, pollution monitoring, and natural resource management. Pre: (1005, 1006), (1015, 1016) or (1105, 1106, 1115, 1116). (3H,3L,4C)

4404: ORNITHOLOGY
Biology of birds, including functional anatomy, systematics, evolutionary history, behavior, and ecology. Laboratory on systematics, anatomy, and field experience in the areas of behavior and ecology. II Pre: 2804. (3H,3L,4C)

4434: MAMMALOGY
Biology of mammals including evolution, systematics, anatomy, physiology, and ecology. Laboratory on systematics, morphology, zoogeography, and diversity of North American mammals. I Pre: 2804. (3H,3L,4C)

4454: INVERTEBRATE ZOOLOGY
Identification, morphology, evolutionary relationships, and natural history of free-living invertebrates, excluding insects. I Pre: 2504. (3H,3L,4C)

4474: ETHOLOGY
An evolutionary and ecological approach to animal behavior, drawing on behavioral genetics, endocrinology, neurophysiology, and behavioral ecology to explain how and why the behavior of an organism is adapted to its environment. Pre: 2504. (3H,3C) I.

4484 (ENT 4484) (FIW 4484): FRESHWATER BIOMONITORING
Concepts and practices of using macroinvertebrates and fish to monitor the environmental health of freshwater ecosystems. Effects of different types of pollution and environmental stress on assemblages of organisms and underlying ecological principles. Role of biological studies in environmental regulation. Study design, field and laboratory methods, data analysis and interpretation, verbal and written presentation of results. Pre: (2804), (4004 or 4354 or ENT 4354 or FIW 4424 or FIW 4614). (3H,3L,4C)

4504: HISTOLOGY
Microanatomy of cells, tissues, and organs and correlation of microanatomical structure with cellular function. Senior Standing. (3H,6L,5C) II.

4524: ENVIRONMENTAL ANIMAL PHYSIOLOGY
Physiological adaptations to environmental factors, emphasizing vertebrate organ systems. Evolutionary and acclimatory processes will be considered. Must have prerequisites or instructor's permission. Writing intensive. Odd years. II. Pre: 3404. (3H,3C)

4534: COMPARATIVE ENDOCRINOLOGY (WRITING INTENSIVE)
Physiology of endocrine systems, emphasizing vertebrates but including invertebrates. Mechanisms of hormone action, physiologic roles of hormones, and overall integration. Must have prerequisites or instructor's permission. I Pre: 3404. (3H,3C)

4554 (ALS 4554): NEUROCHEMICAL REGULATION
Neurochemical transmission within the vertebrate brain will be examined. Emphasis will be placed on the chemical coding underlying the control of various behaviors and how these systems can be modified by various drugs or diet. II Pre: (ALS 2304 or BIOL 3404), (CHEM 2535). (3H,3C)

4574 (ALS 4574): SOCIAL BEHAVIOR OF BIRDS AND MAMMALS
This course examines origins, influences and implications of social behavior in a variety of avian and mammalian species. Emphasis is placed on understanding group organization and dynamics in interand intra-species situations. Experimental data from several disciplines (e.g., genetics, physiology, biochemistry) are reviewed to demonstrate their associations with behavioral adaptive mechanisms. Avian and mammalian species living in wild, zoo, agricultural companion and laboratory settings are discussed. Pre: 1106, ALS 3104 or BIOL 2004. (3H,3C)

4604 (FST 4604): FOOD MICROBIOLOGY
Role of microorganisms in foodborne illness and food quality, spoilage, and preservation. Control and destruction of microorganisms in foods. Pre: 2614, 2604. (3H,3L,4C) II.

4624: MICROBIAL GENETICS
Molecular genetics of bacteria and their associated plasmids and phages. Pre: 2004, 2604. (3H,3C) I.

4634: MICROBIAL PHYSIOLOGY
The study of the structure, function and metabolic activities of prokaryotic microorganisms. Topics covered included cell composition and growth, metabolic unity and diversity, patterns of regulation, transport mechanisms, environmental sensing and response and cellular differentiation processes. (BIOL 4624 is recommended, but not required.) Pre: 2604, (2004 or 2104). (3H,3C)

4644: MICROBIAL MOLECULAR GENETICS AND PHYSIOLOGY LABORATORY
Introduction to classical and molecular methods used for the study of bacterial genetics and physiology. Laboratory exercises cover analysis of patterns of gene regulation; assay of enzymatic activities; mutagenesis followed by selection, screening, and physiological characterization of mutant strains; genome database utilization; and large scale fermentation. Pre: 4624. (1H,6L,3C)

4664: VIROLOGY
Classification, structure, pathogenesis, host response, and replication strategies of viruses of bacteria, plants, and animals, stressing mechanisms elucidated by molecular biological techniques. I Pre: 2104, 2604, 2614. (3H,3C)

4674: PATHOGENIC BACTERIOLOGY
Characteristics of bacteria that cause human disease, nature of infectious processes, virulence factors, epidemiology, resistance, immunization. Pre: 2004, 2104, 2604, 2614. (3H,3C)

4704: IMMUNOLOGY
Immunochemistry of antigens and antibodies, serological reactions, chemistry of complement, control of immunity, immune response of an intact animal. Pre: CHEM 2536 or BIOL 2104. (3H,3C)

4714: IMMUNOLOGY LABORATORY
Serological and immunobiological techniques used to interpret the consequences of an immune response. I,II Pre: 4704. (3L,1C)

4724: PATHOGENIC BACTERIOLOGY LAB
Microbiological techniques used in the laboratory to identify and characterize bacteria that cause infectious diseases. Pre: 2004, 2104, 2604, 2614. Co: 4674. (3L,1C)

4764: CAPSTONE MICROBIOLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY SEMINAR
Student presentation of topics in microbiology and immunology in dialogue with interdepartmental microbiology and immunology faculty. Junior-senior standing and candidate for graduation in the department's microbiology and immunology option. Pass/Fail only. (1L,1C) I,II.

4774: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY LAB
An introduction to recombinant DNA methods, including restriction endonuclease digestion, gel electrophoresis, cloning, Southern blotting, polymerase chain reaction, sequencing and analysis of reporter gene expression in transgenic organisms. BIOL 3774 may be taken as a corequisite with 4774. I,II. Pre: 3774. (1H,6L,3C)

4784 (BCHM 4784): BIOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS
Covers medical, agricultural, environmental and industrial biotechnology and their ethical, legal and social implications. Includes the commercial exploitation of microbes, plants, and animals, plus safety of the food supply, conservation genetics, use in forensic science, patent laws, and the regulations governing biotechnology in the U.S. and overseas. Does not count as Biology elective for biology majors/minors. II Pre: BCHM 3114, BCHM 3124, (BIOL 3774, BIOL 4774) or (BCHM 4116, BCHM 4124). (3H,3C)

4804: PROKARYOTIC DIVERSITY
The study of the vast array of physiological, morphological, and behavioral properties of prokaryotes. Topics include: modern prokaryotic classification, prokaryotic diversity, relationship and importance to cell and molecular biology and biochemistry, application and use in industry and agriculture, and to the maintenance of the biosphere. Must have pre-requisites or consent of the instructor. Pre: 2604, 2614, (3124 or BCHM 3114). (3H,3C)

4884: CELL BIOLOGY
Advanced study of the inner workings of eukaryotic cells, including membrane structure and function, protein secretion, the cytoskeleton, cell cycle control and intercellular communication. II Pre: 3774 or BCHM 4116. (3H,3C)

4964: FIELD STUDY
Pass/Fail only. Variable credit course.

4974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.

4984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.

4994: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
Variable credit course. X-grade allowed.

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Virginia Tech 2007-08 Undergraduate Course Catalog and Academic Policies