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College of Engineering

www.eng.vt.edu

Richard C. Benson, Dean
Interim
Associate Dean for Academic Affairs: Scott Case
Associate Dean for Administration, and Chief of Staff: Edward L. Nelson
Associate Dean for International Programs and Information Technology: Glenda R. Scales
Associate Dean for Research and Graduate Studies: Donald L. Leo

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Mission of the College

    Virginia Tech is the home of the commonwealth's leading College of Engineering. It is known in Virginia and throughout the nation for the excellence of its programs in engineering education, research and public service. It is the state’s largest engineering college, and ranks among the top five suppliers of new B.S. degrees in the United States.

    The mission of the College of Engineering is to offer high quality support for our stakeholders in order to provide a successful experience in the engineering education pursuits of our customers. The vision of the college is to foster strong working relationships between faculty, student and industry partners that will ultimately bring research opportunities through engineering educational offerings. The goals of the college are to attract high-caliber students and to provide them with a top-quality engineering education in preparation for productive careers; to invest in faculty development to enhance Virginia Tech's reputation as a research university and a leader in graduate education; and to forge new links with industry and government to facilitate economic development within the Commonwealth and the nation.

    In U.S. News & World Report’s “America’s Best Colleges 2010” survey, the College of Engineering’s undergraduate program again ranked 14th among all accredited engineering schools. This places the three schools among the top 3 percent of more than 600 institutions accredited by the Accreditation Board of Engineering and Technology. Among public universities, the college ranks seventh. Among overall industrial/manufacturing engineering programs, Virginia Tech ranks fifth in the nation. The college’s aerospace program and civil engineering department each ranked 10th in the nation. The mechanical engineering department and electrical and computer engineering department each ranked 14th in their respective categories. Rounding out the rankings, the materials science and engineering department placed 15th, the environmental track ranked 16th, and chemical engineering placed 23rd in the nation.

    For U.S. News & World Report’s 2011 report on Graduate Schools, the college cracked the Top 25 schools of engineering for the first time. Four departments within the College of Engineering finished in the top 10 of their respective category. The Charles E.Via Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering ranked ninth among civil engineering programs, with the environmental engineering program tying for seventh. The Grado Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering ranked fourth among industrial/manufacturing programs. The biological systems engineering department, also part of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, tied for seventh among biological/agricultural programs.

    The College of Engineering offers bachelor of science degrees in the following areas: Aerospace Engineering, Biological Systems Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Computer Engineering, Computer Science, Construction Engineering and Management, Electrical Engineering, Engineering Science and Mechanics, Industrial and Systems Engineering, Materials Science and Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Mining Engineering and Ocean Engineering. All other College of Engineering undergraduate programs in engineering are accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET, 111 Market Place, Suite 1050, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012, telephone: (410) 347-7700. The Computer Science program is accredited by the Computing Accreditation Commission of ABET, 111 Market Place, Suite 1050, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012, telephone: (410) 347-7700.

    Engineers play an important role in modern society. They design and develop new and better materials, products and processes for households and industries, from tiny semiconductors to huge dams. Engineers are needed across a broad spectrum of industry from the traditional field such as mechanical to the emerging fields of robotics and biomedicine. Engineers must not only satisfy society's demand for improved performance, reliability and safety of products, they also are expected to supply solutions for environmental and social problems created by new technology.

    Our graduates are well-rounded. Men and women trained in engineering will find many professional outlets. They may join large or small manufacturing industries or they may offer their skills and knowledge as professional consultants. They may work in government or private research laboratories or teach and do research in universities. If the future leads them into other professions such as medicine, law, food services or business, their engineering education shall provide a sound base. Graduates of the College of Engineering are in high demand. Our student-run Engineering EXPO attracted roughly 250 employers in 2009, and we are a key recruiting school for approximately 40 major corporations.

    It is essential that engineers, regardless of specialty, be well versed in mathematics, the physical sciences and the engineering sciences so that they can adapt readily to meet the profession’s ever-changing demands. But professional training is not enough. Engineers need to have imagination and insight. They must understand the history and traditions of the society in which they live. They also must be familiar with the social sciences and humanities.

    Engineers also must be able to communicate effectively with higher management and the general public. All departments within the college are implementing programs to ensure that every graduate is able to effectively use a variety of spoken, visual and written communication strategies which are necessary for success as a student, for employment, and for life as a responsible citizen. Additional emphasis is being placed in freshmen engineering classes to emphasize the importance of communications in engineering analysis and design.

    Engineers who are well educated, not just well trained, will be better equipped to develop scientific knowledge into useful technology.

Innovations of the College of Engineering

    In a move recognized by the National Academy of Engineering for its leadership, the College transformed its Engineering Fundamentals program into the Department of Engineering Education. While Engineering Education will continue to train freshmen in the fundamental principles of engineering, that curriculum has been broadened to accommodate the Department of Computer Science within the College. The basic ideas and principles inherent in the freshman year — such as the scientific method, an introduction to design, an understanding of the engineer’s or technologist’s role and responsibility in modern society, and a first exposure to technical communication — can be imparted in both an “analog” and a “digital” environment. Engineering Education also has developed M.S. and Ph.D. programs to prepare students to teach engineering or technology at any level, from kindergarten to college. The National Science Foundation has supported these developments through several major grants.

    Tenured or tenure track faculty teach more than 90 percent of all engineering courses at Virginia Tech. Engineering faculty members focus on solving real world problems, and share these experiences in the classroom. The work of the faculty with industry brings modern, ground-breaking knowledge back to the classroom quicker than any textbook. These experiences provide a hands-on dimension that result in the superlative quality of engineering teaching for which Virginia Tech is so well known.

    Virginia Tech engineering undergraduates are fortunate to have a combination of excellent classroom instruction and the opportunity to participate in "hands-on, minds-on" engineering training.

    Three unique facilities, established by the generosity of College of Engineering alumni, are available to undergraduates.

    In the Joseph F. Ware, Jr. Advanced Engineering Laboratory, students design and construct competition projects including Formula SAE race cars, Baja SAE vehicles, human-powered submarines and airplanes, radio-controlled aircraft, steel bridges, autonomous aerial and underwater vehicles, and hybrid electric vehicles.

    In the Frith Freshman Engineering Design Laboratory, freshmen learn engineering principles by working with a number of mechanisms donated by industry sponsors.

    At the Thomas M. Murray Structural Engineering Laboratory on Plantation Road, students are offered hands-on, in-lab experiments such as investigating the shear strength of lightweight concrete girders. Using massive vices, students are able to bear massive weights on concrete girders to test their strength. The lab is a wonder to witness as these girders themselves are several times larger than many lab classrooms strung together.

    The Virginia Tech Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science (ICTAS) has emerged as a vital vehicle that presents a strong link to economic development for the entire Commonwealth. Led by Virginia Tech's College of Engineering, ICTAS presents a case for advancement of humankind through collaborative research, and it represents a strong link between all of the colleges of engineering across the Commonwealth. For the undergraduate, ICTAS will provide opportunities for research employment.

    ICTAS incorporates the common features of Organized Research Units (ORUs) that have produced strong economic growth around highly ranked universities. At Virginia Tech, we recognize that a university-affiliated ORU is more than a traditional research center. It must allow for, and encourage, a seamless path from fundamental research, through applied research and development, to technology transfer - not only by publications but also through the licensing of intellectual property, the initiation of new companies, student involvement, and technical assistance to Virginia companies.

    At Virginia Tech, the common features emerged for the ORUs of ICTAS include: the clustering of synergistic research groups; teaming of researchers with science and engineering backgrounds; a breadth of activities that bridges periods of transition in research emphasis; the employment of full-time researchers and support personnel but with strong linkages to academic units through faculty and student involvement; and an initial investment and financial structure that allows the research unit to become not only self-sustaining, but a provider of revenue to the university.

    ICTAS in 2007 dedicated its first building, the Nanoscale Characterization and Fabrication Lab. Located in Virginia Tech’s Corporate Research Center, the lab is a 32,000--square-foot facility on par with the best nanotechnology labs in the world. In March 2009, the ICTAS-I building opened in the College of Engineering corridor along Stanger and Old turner streets. The 99,000-square-foot building now serves as the institute’s home base, housing the School of Biomedical Engineering and Sciences as a principal tenant, in addition to the Sustainable Water Infrastructure Management program head by faculty members Marc Edwards and Sunil Sinha.

    Approved by the Virginia General Assembly, the ICTAS-II building is under construction in the university’s life sciences corridor to house research labs with a biotechnology focus. Its opening date nears.

    The three facilities will provide a total of 200,000 square feet for College of Engineering researchers and colleagues from the colleges of Science, Natural Resources, and Veterinary Medicine to help Invent the Future, the mantra of Virginia Tech.

    Work also is moving ahead on the planned Signature Engineering Building. To be located near the corner of Stanger Street and Pepper’s Ferry Road, the roughly 160,000-square-foot facility will house many of the College’s core departments and serve as a leading center of engineering education in Virginia. Its architecture plans recently have been approved by the state, and funding initiatives are moving full-steam ahead. More information, including architecture plans can be found here: http://www.eng.vt.edu/signaturebuilding.

    The philosophy of Virginia Tech's College of Engineering always has been to get the right technology in the hands of our students. This reasoning fostered our pioneering decision in 1984 to become the first large public university to require our entering engineering freshmen to purchase a PC. In 2002, the College of Engineering switched the requirement to a Notebook computer. In 2006, in order to provide the opportunity for our engineering students to continue their education at the cutting edge of technology, we moved to the Convertible Tablet PC. Use of this device in and outside of class provides our students with experiences that they will use in the future.

    The Convertible Tablet PC allows students to use digital ink for taking notes, drawing diagrams as part of the notes or homework assignments; annotating faculty PowerPoint slides or other electronic files and easily writing mathematical equations. Additionally, students are able to use digital-ink enabled collaboration software to support learning activities in and outside of class. By having all of their information electronically in one place, students have a tool to support them with organizing their assignments and time as well as collaborating electronically with their peers.

    The Tablets are used in engineering classes and incoming freshmen use their Tablets in their first year courses, such as EngE 1024, 1104 and 1114, as well as in many upper division classes. Formerly a "computer requirement,” this now is a "technology requirement.” We group the computer, software and any other tools necessary as part of an integrated requirement. Through this program we know that the students will benefit from their experience.

    The Myers-Lawson School of Construction further enhances Virginia Tech's recognized strong position of national leadership in construction education and research. The primary focus of the Myers-Lawson school is on values-based leadership in the construction industry. The school combines the strengths of two excellent programs - the Department of Building Construction in the College of Architecture, and the Vecellio Construction Engineering Management Program in the Charles E. Via Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering in the College of Engineering - to establish a new standard for construction education and research.

    The School of Construction provides undergraduates and graduates more choices for pursuing construction education. It is anticipated that the undergraduate degree in construction engineering and management will complement the existing degree programs in building construction and in civil and environmental engineering. The school will work with faculty from multiple departments to provide students with additional opportunities to pursue concentrations, minors, or support courses related to construction. The Myers-Lawson School and the Department of Building Construction is located at Bishop-Favro Hall, a 31,600-square-foot building that provides classroom space, seminar rooms, and studios for students. The facility also houses state-of-the-art laboratory spaces, include testing labs, wet labs, material handling, tool and welding labs, and workshops for assembly of construction systems.

Green Engineering

    Virginia Tech was one of the first universities to formally consider the connection between engineering practice and environmental stewardship from an interdisciplinary perspective. The Green Engineering Program was created in 1995 and serves all departments within the College of Engineering.

    This program combines environmentally conscious attitudes, values and principles with science, technology and engineering practice, and focuses this interdisciplinary approach toward improving local and global environmental quality. Based on engineering fundamentals, green engineering analyzes the design of products, processes, and systems to minimize the life cycle environmental impacts, from the initial extraction of raw materials to the energy consumption and waste production during manufacturing to the ultimate disposal of materials that cannot be reused or recycled.

    The Green Engineering Program works with students, faculty and the university administration to provide educational and research opportunities with regard to both the environmental impacts and the environmental solutions that can result from engineering practice.

    A university-recognized minor allows interested students to obtain a minor in Green Engineering in addition to their primary degree(s) in the College of Engineering. To obtain this minor, students are required to take 18 credit hours in the minor area as follows: six (6) credits in the two core courses – Introduction to Green Engineering and Environmental Life Cycle Analysis; six (6) credits in interdisciplinary elective courses; and six (6) credits in disciplinary electives within the students’ major. Detailed lists of the courses which meet the minor requirements can be found in the Green Engineering Web site at www.eng.vt.edu/green.

Examples of Accomplishments at the National Level

    The Virginia Tech Student Engineers’ Council (SEC) created a permanent funding source for the dozens of undergraduate design teams in the College of Engineering. An initial gift of $105,000 was presented to the college at the SEC’s Leadership Awards Luncheon in 2007. In 2008 and 2009, it awarded close to another $200,000 to the endowment. The council’s goal is for the endowment to reach $500,000 by the end of 2010. Boeing, through the leadership of AOE alumnus Marc Sheffler, has contributed $80,000 to this endowment. In both 2003 and 2006, the Virginia Tech SEC was named the most philanthropic student organization in the country by the National Association of Engineering Student Councils, in recognition of grants supporting programs in the college. The SEC earns the revenue it donates to the college by hosting the annual Engineering Expo career fair, which attracts about 250 companies to the campus. In addition to grants, the SEC also has endowed three scholarships, each with a principal value of $25,000.

    A student team at the college’s Robotics & Mechanisms Laboratory (RoMeLa) created the world’s first and only vehicle that allows a blind or low-vision person to independently operate a motor vehicle without passenger assistance. The student team publicly debuted the prototype car at a summer camp for blind youth. “The Washington Post,” Discovery Channel and CBS News’ “Early Show” were on hand to capture the action. Fox News, “The New York Times,” and “Popular Science” also reported on the team, with “Momentum” and “Machine Design” magazines featuring students and the prototype red buggy on their respective covers. Yet, team members know that media attention is not the reason for their work. They are bettering lives. “We’re showing the world the extreme level of capability that the blind already have,” said then team leader Greg Jannaman, who now is working for National Instruments. The team soon will set to work on re-engineering highway-ready cras with their ground-breaking, blind-friendly technologies.

    Another team of students from RoMeLa captured two top industry awards for its robotic hand, RAPHaEL. Kyle Cothern, Carlos Guevara, Alexander McCraw, Taylor Pesek and Colin Smith won first in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Student Mechanism and Robot Design Competition at the International Design Engineering Technical Conference and the top spot in the 2008-2009 Compressed Air and Gas Institute’s Innovation Award Contest.

    Members of the Hybrid Electric Vehicle Team of Virginia Tech (HEVT) are participating in the EcoCAR Challenge. Here, students are re-engineering a 2009 crossover SUV to improve fuel efficiency and reduce emissions while retaining the vehicle's performance and consumer appeal. At the time of this writing, the team was No. 1 in the nation at the EcoCAR Challenge May 2010 contest in Arizona. Additionally, another student group in 2009 produced more than 200 gallons of biodiesel as part of a senior design project for the department of mechanical engineering, using cooking grease from restaurants in the Blacksburg area.

    A team of electrical and computer engineering students took first in a Texas Instruments competition, winning the 2009 Engibous Prize for their senior design project -- a 200 W Class D subwoofer amplifier. Winning students were Thomas LaBella, John Caldwell, Alex Kim and Preston Taylor.

    A student team from the College of Engineering and the College of Architecture and Urban Studies won first place in the 2009 Associated Schools of Construction/Associated General Contractors Region II Heavy-Civil competition. Among the winners: Jason Lieb, Stephanie Savoia, Josh Zilke, Vaibhav Gupta and Gavin McDuff.

    Computer science faculty adviser Doug Bowman and Felipe Bacim, Tao Ni, Regis Kopper, and Anamary Leal, all CS students won first place in the 3D User Interface contest at the IEEE Symposium on 3D User Interfaces in March of 2010. The team, called the Fighting Gobblers, participated in a contest requiring teams to develop a novel 3D user interface for a difficult 3D interaction task. The four students and Bowman designed and implemented an interface for this task based entirely on commodity hardware (Wii controllers).

    Students at Virginia Tech’s Unmanned Systems Laboratory are perfecting an autonomous helicopter they hope will never be used for its intended purpose. Roughly six feet long and weighing 200 pounds, the re-engineered aircraft is designed to fly into American cities blasted by a nuclear weapon or dirty bomb. The helicopter’s main mission would be to assist military investigators in the unthinkable: Enter an American city after a nuclear attack in order to detect radiation levels, map and photograph damage. “It’s for a worst-case scenario,” said project leader Kevin Kochersberger , a research associate professor with the College of Engineering and director of the Virginia Tech Unmanned Systems Laboratory . His team consists of several graduate and undergraduate students from the mechanical engineering (ME) and electrical and computer engineering departments.

    A student team from the Department of Mining and Minerals Engineering has won for the third consecutive year first place in the Society for Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration (SME) / National Stone, Sand, and Gravel Association (NSSGA) Student Design Competition. The team won a $2,000 cash prize, as well as school lab equipment donated by InfoMine USA. The department’s students consistently have finished first or second in the six-year history of the event. The team includes: Blane Bowers, Ben Fahrman, Ricky Rose, Scott Hutchins, Dan Sadtler and Susie Underwood.

    Thao Do, a senior within the mechanical engineering department, has been selected as a National Institutes of Health-Oxford-Cambridge Scholar. She plans to spend 2010-12 on the National Institutes of Health main campus in Bethesda, Md., and 2012-14 in the United Kingdom, at either Oxford or Cambridge universities. She is a native of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, currently living in Springfield, Va. The National Institutes of Health-Oxford-Cambridge Scholars program is an accelerated, individualized doctoral training program for outstanding science students committed to biomedical research, according to organizers.

    Ryan Shaw a junior majoring in chemical engineering (and mathematics at the College of Science) recently was selected as a Goldwater Scholar. The Goldwater Scholars were selected on the basis of academic merit from a field of 1,111 mathematics, science, and engineering students who were nominated by the faculties of colleges and universities nationwide. One hundred fifty-six of the Scholars are men, 122 are women, and virtually all intend to obtain a Ph.D. as their degree objective. Seventeen Scholars are mathematics majors, 199 are science and related majors, 53 are majoring in engineering, and 9 are computer science majors. Many of the Scholars have dual majors in a variety of mathematics, science, engineering, and computer disciplines.

Major Undergraduate Scholarships

    For the 2009-2010 academic year, a total of $$1,693,092 was awarded to undergraduate students in the College of Engineering. Funding is provided by 75 scholarships administered by the College and 164 scholarships administered throughout the engineering departments. Twenty-three entering freshmen and 22 continuing students received the Dean’s Scholar for fall semester 2009. These scholarships are open to all incoming engineering freshmen and are awarded based on academic potential, community service, leadership potential, family circumstances and essay quality. Each scholarship is available for up to four years of undergraduate study, based on academic performance. The College continued 17 Eleanor Davenport Leadership Scholarships. The Davenport Scholarship provides full in-state tuition and fees and is renewable for students who maintain at least a 3.5 grade point average, out of a possible 4.0 GPA. The largest sponsor of upper-class scholarships continues to be the Gilbert and Lucille Seay Scholarship Fund, with 138 students receiving a total of $221,300 in scholarship funding.

Additional Facts about the College

    The University Honors Program offers a unique challenge students with extraordinary intellectual and creative abilities. The program is available to all engineering departments and includes the opportunity for enrollment in accelerated courses, enriched sections, and independent study.

    A five-year Cooperative Education program for qualified students is available in all of the engineering curricula. After at least two qualifying semesters, students may alternate semesters of study on campus with work periods in industry. Participants are required to have a minimum of a 2.0 overall grade point average, and students must have earned a 2.0 in the semester prior to any work experience. Individual departments may impose higher GPA restrictions, including ones based on in-major GPA.

    Approximately 7,650 students are enrolled in undergraduate and graduate engineering departments at Virginia Tech as of fall 2009. More than 34 percent of the undergraduate students are from out-of-state, primarily from Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and New York. In the entering 2008-2009 freshman class, the average SAT score for the general engineering student was 1277 and the average high school grade point average was 3.97 on a weighted scale. Approximately 17.6 percent of the entering class are females. Another 19.6 percent are members of under-represented populations.

    Of the 2008-2009 College of Engineering bachelor’s degree graduates who were employed full-time, (the most recent year for which statistics are known), 96 percent were employed in a field related to their major. The average annual salary at the bachelor's level was $58,000.

Admission

    All students admitted to the College of Engineering as freshmen are placed in the Department of Engineering Education and are designated as General Engineering students. Upon completion of a set of required freshman-level courses, students with acceptable academic records are eligible for transfer into one of the college's 14 degree programs. (The exception is that students who are on the Dean's List their first semester may elect to transfer after one semester.) Admission to a degree program is competitive, with departmental restrictions established each year by the college. Students transferring to Virginia Tech from another college or university will be considered for admission to a degree granting engineering program if they have completed all courses required of Virginia Tech engineering freshmen, based on transfer credit evaluation by the Office of the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs. Other eligible transfer students may be offered admission into the General Engineering program. All freshmen and transfer admission decisions are made by the University Undergraduate Admissions Office.

    The college has a transfer articulation agreement with the Virginia Community College System. VCCS students who complete the Associate Degree in engineering with a minimum 3.0 grade-point-average and who complete a specified list of academic courses are guaranteed admission to the College of Engineering. Not all Virginia Community Colleges offer engineering courses. The Associate Degree in engineering is offered at Central Virginia, J. Sargeant Reynolds, John Tyler, New River, Northern Virginia, Southwest Virginia, Thomas Nelson, Tidewater, and Virginia Western Community Colleges.

    The Associate Degree in science with specialization in engineering is offered at Piedmont Virginia Community College.

    Engineering Technology credits are not accepted for transfer by the College of Engineering.

    Students wishing to transfer into an engineering program from another college or degree program within the university must meet current standards set by the college for each engineering program. Application materials are available in the College of Engineering Academic Affairs office in 212 Hancock Hall.

Required Academic Progress

    Minimum requirements for graduation include the attainment of at least a "C" (2.0 Grade Point Average) average, both overall and in-major. Some departments may have additional requirements or specifications concerning the acceptability of C- or lower grades for in-major courses. Students are expected to sustain progress towards completion of their degree requirements, consulting with their academic advisor regularly.

    In addition to meeting university requirements, requirements for enrollment have been established by individual departments..


    Entry into a degree-granting department requires that a student successfully complete all first year required courses. Additional requirements are specific to degree programs and are as follows:

  • Biological Systems Engineering: a student must have an overall GPA of 2.0 or greater
  • Chemical Engineering: a student must have an overall GPA of 2.0 or greater and have completed CHEM 1036/1046.
  • Civil Engineering: a student must have a competitive GPA as determined by applications to the department, less than 55 hours earned at Virginia Tech, C- or better grade in ENGE 1024 and ENGE 1104/1114.
  • Computer Engineering: a student must earn a grade of C- or greater in the following courses: ENGE 1024 and 1104, MATH 1114, 1224, 1205 and 1206, and PHYS 2305 and have an overall GPA of 2.0 or higher.
  • Computer Science: a student must earn a grade of C or greater in CS 1705 or 1124, and have an overall GPA of 2.3 or greater.
  • Electrical Engineering: a student must earn a grade of C- or greater in the following courses: ENGE 1024 and 1104, MATH 1114, 1224, 1205 and 1206, and PHYS 2305 and have an overall GPA of 2.0 or higher.
  • Engineering Science and Mechanics: a student must have an overall GPA of 2.5 or greater.
  • Industrial and Systems Engineering: a student must have an overall GPA of 2.0 or greater.
  • Mechanical Engineering: a student must have an overall GPA of 2.5 or greater.

Graduation Requirements

    Degree requirements in the college range from 120 to 136 semester hours. Students should see their departmental advisor to determine the exact requirements of their degree. The 2.0 GPA minimum requirement for graduation also applies to all courses attempted in the student's departmental major; substitute non-departmental courses are not included. Where courses have substantial duplication, credit toward graduation will be given for one course only. Up to 2 credits in physical education may be used toward graduation as free elective credit. ESM 4404 and other courses below the academic potential of the engineering student may not be used towards graduation.

    The senior academic year must be completed in residence while enrolled in the major department in the College of Engineering.

    Engineering curricula have uniform minimum requirements in the humanities and social sciences. The 18-credit minimum includes 6 credits of Freshman English, usually completed during the first year, and 12 credits of humanities and social science electives selected from Areas 2 and 3 (6 credits each) of the Curriculum for Liberal Education.

    Although pass/fail courses may be authorized for those who maintain a GPA above 2.0, students should recognize future disadvantages when transferring to other departments or applying for admission to other professional or graduate colleges. Engineering students are expected to take all major department courses on a grade basis. Independent study and undergraduate research courses are available for those who maintain a GPA above 2.0 overall and in their departmental majors; some departments may require a higher GPA.

    The College of Engineering will accept advanced ROTC credit as free elective credit towards graduation. Some departments in engineering may allow the use of selected ROTC courses to meet technical elective requirements. Consult specific departments in the College of Engineering for information.