Chair: Brett L. Shadle
Associate Chair: Dennis P. Halpin
Professors: M.V. Barrow Jr., L. A. Belmonte, A.R. Ekirch, E.T. Ewing, R.F. Hirsh, B. L. Shadle, and P.R. Wallenstein
Associate Professors: D. Agmon, G.R. Bugh, C. Gitre, H. L. Gumbert, D.P. Halpin, M. Heaton, M. Kiechle, M. Mollin, A. Nelson, P. Quigley, P. Schmitthenner, H. Schneider, N.L. Shumsky, R. P. Stephens, D.B. Thorp, L. Winling, A. Zeide
Assistant Professors: A. Demmer, E. Gitre, L. Holness, A. Lumba, R. Midura, E. Polanco, and J. Taylor
Collegiate Assistant Professor: M. Dufour
Senior Instructor: T. H. Becker
Adjunct Professors: M. Alexander and R. Shelton
History is the study of people and events of the past to better understand how to meet the challenges of the future. Our students develop important 21st-century skills in research and analysis, speaking and writing excellence, the synthesis of diverse information, digital and media literacy, intercultural understanding, and historical/contextual expertise.
Widely recognized for promoting undergraduate research, the history curriculum prepares students for fulfilling careers in the technology sector, law, business, the military, intelligence, non-profit management and administration, healthcare, media and communication, information management, and education. History also provides the knowledge and skill students need for graduate work in Journalism, Law, Business, and Medicine, or the liberal arts or social sciences.
Courses at the 1000 level are introductory surveys open to anyone with an interest in history but without a strong background in the subject. Students intending to continue in history should take these courses in their freshman or sophomore years. Courses at the 2000 level, with the exception of Historical Methods, are introductory surveys of particular topics for a general undergraduate audience. Courses at the 3000 level, primarily for sophomores and above, provide more focused and detailed study of a period, place, or topic introduced at the 1000 or 2000 level. Courses at the 4000 level are conducted as seminars that emphasize original writing and research, and are generally restricted to students with junior standing or above who have already taken six hours or more of college-level history.
The history curriculum is designed to introduce fundamental skills of the discipline, followed by upper division courses that develop knowledge and skills, culminating in a capstone research experience. It is a deliberately flexible curriculum built to encourage students to double major, minor, or undertake study abroad, internships, and/or undergraduate research.
History majors complete a minimum of 36 hours in History, including 18 hours of core history courses and 18 hours of depth studies that can be tailored to students' own interests.
Majors who choose to undertake the Research/Thesis Option will complete the requirements of the B.A. in History and: six hours of undergraduate research that results in the completion of a Thesis, or three hours of undergraduate research that builds on work completed in HIST 4914 and three hours of History elective credit at the 2000 level or above.
The graduation requirements in effect during the academic year of admission to Virginia Tech apply. Requirements for graduation are listed on checksheets. Students must satisfactorily complete all requirements and university obligations for degree completion. The university reserves the right to modify requirements in a degree program.
Please visit the University Registrar's website at https://www.registrar.vt.edu/graduation-multi-brief/checksheets.html for degree requirements.
Majors may select a concentration within the history major. Concentrations require that at least 12 of the 24 hours of history taken at the 2000 or 3000 level be appropriate to the field of concentration, and the completion of 6 hours of undergraduate research. Concentrations are available in: Military/Political/Diplomatic History; Social/Cultural/Economic History; Global/Comparative History; and History of Science/Technology/Environment.
A faculty advisor and/or professional advisor will assist each major in planning a suitable course of study. The student is expected to confer with the faculty advisor at regular intervals regarding the progress of his or her studies.
To earn a minor in history, a student must complete satisfactorily (with at least a 2.0 average) a minimum of 18 hours of history courses. You may find requirements by visiting the University Registrar website at http://registrar.vt.edu/graduation-multi-brief/index1.html.
History minors require completion of a minimum of 18 hours of history courses, some of which must meet a Depth Studies requirement. We offer minors in History, War and Society, Asian Studies, and Russian Area Studies. You may find requirements by visiting the University Registrar website http://registrar.vt.edu/graduation-multi-brief/index1.html.
A professional advisor assists each major in planning to meet their degree requirements. The student is expected to confer with the advisor at regular intervals regarding the progress of his or her studies. Students also work with one or more faculty mentors who provide guidance regarding academic and professional choices.
Virginia Tech offers extensive career advising.
This history department encourages our students to undertake study abroad, internships, and undergraduate research projects and offers students curriculum that allows them to achieve academic credit for these experiences. Check out the wide variety of study abroad programs available through the Global Education Office. Research the wide array of career-related experiences you can have while still in College, especially Hokies4Hire.
Outstanding history majors may be eligible to join the Honors College and complete an Honors Laureate Diploma. For more about the Honors College, please visit https://honorscollege.vt.edu.
The department is host to a student-run History Club and a local chapter of the National History Honors Society Phi Alpha Theta. Social and academic events allow for informal interaction between students and faculty. Don't miss our annual trivia competition Stump the Chumps—the Graduate students are the current champions!
University policy requires that students who are making satisfactory progress toward a degree meet minimum criteria toward the General Education (Curriculum for Liberal Education) (see "Academics") and toward the degree in history.
Satisfactory progress requirements toward the B.A. in history can be found on the major checksheet by visiting the University Registrar website at http://registrar.vt.edu/graduation-multi-brief/index1.html.
1004: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY Introduces students to the main concepts and issues of discipline of history. Familiarizes students with the Department of History, educational requirements, university resources, and career opportunities for History majors. (3H,3C)
1014: TOPICS IN REACTING TO THE PAST Introduction to fundamental issues in history through historical simulations. Enacting specific roles in historical situations while improving liberal learning skills, including evaluating evidence, understanding multiple perspectives, writing persuasive essays, and developing public speaking skills. Specific topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated one time with different content for a maximum of six credits. (3H,3C)
1024: ANCIENT HISTORY Surveys the civilizations and peoples of Greece, Rome, and the Ancient Near East (including Egypt and Mesopotamia) from the invention of writing around 3,000 B.C. to the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century C.E. through study of literature as well as archaeological artificts. Examines the interactions and interdependencies of these civilizations and considers their enduring influence. (3H,3C)
1025,1026: INTRODUCTION TO EUROPEAN HISTORY Examines the political, social, and cultural history of Europe since the medieval period. Focuses on the complex interplay between demographic transformation, social and political change, and cultural development. 1025: Explores the legacy of the Roman Empire, the expansion and consolidation of \034Europe,\035 the medieval world and expansion in the Atlantic World. 1026: Explores the rise of Absolutism and the Enlightenment, the Age of Revolutions, imperialism, the rise of new political ideologies and nation-building, and Europe in the twentieth century world. (3H,3C)
1115,1116: HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES Examines the history of the United States through intersections of politics, economics, sciences, the arts and significant social movements. Considers how the modern United States has emerged through the interactions of diverse ethnic, racial, national, class, and religious groups. 1115: pre-Columbian societies through the Civil War; 1116: Reconstruction through present. Sequence recommended as preparation for advanced courses in United States history. (3H,3C)
1214: HISTORY OF THE MODERN WORLD An examination of the global significance of the critical political, social, cultural, and international issues in the 20th century. (3H,3C)
1215,1216: INTRO TO WORLD HISTORY Examine political, economic, social, and cultural change around the world over the course of human existence, with particular emphasis connections and comparisons of human societies across space and time. 1215: Covers early civilizations to 1500 CE. Major themes include the development of human civilization and the interactions of different societies through exchange of people, ideas, goods, and disease. 1216: Covers from 1500 CE to present. Major themes include the spread of European imperialism and resistance to it, development of nation-states, world wars, and post-colonial globalization. (3H,3C)
1224: CONQUEST AND CULTURE IN LATIN AMERICAN EMPIRES Explores major themes and events in the political and cultural history of major empires in Mexico and Peru from 900 to 1600. Examines the emergence of indigenous empires, their confrontation with European conquistadors, and life in the early colonial period. Discusses the cultural collision that occurred when Europeans arrived in the Americas, and complicates the narrative of the conquest. Focuses on the complex interplay between geography, political and economic organization, and social change. Investigates the position of indigenous peoples in pre-Columbian and European empires in Mesoamerica and the Andes. Discussion of the methods and sources to interpret postclassic and early Colonial Latin America. (3H,3C)
1354: CONFLICT AND SECURITY IN MODERN EAST ASIA Survey of the 20th century history of five states in northeast Asia, People\031s Republic of China, Taiwan, Japan, North and South Korea, and the connections between them. Causes and consequences of war, colonization and nationalist movements and their implications for contemporary regional and global relations. Emphasis on cultural concepts, political ideologies, social relations and historical conflicts as background to current security concerns. (3H,3C)
1515,1516: HISTORY OF AFRICA Examines political, economic, social and cultural themes in African history from the beginnings of human civilization to the recent past, with particular emphasis on historical experiences of race, gender, class, religion, ethnicity, and nationality. 1515: Covers early civilizations through the abolition of the slave trade. Examines migrations and trade, the expansion of Islam, and slavery in Africa and the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. 1516: Covers Africa since the nineteenth century. Examines European conquest, and major political, cultural and social changes during the colonial and post-colonial eras. (3H,3C)
1764: HISTORY OF ROCK ’N’ ROLL Rock \030n\031 roll in historic and cultural contexts. Effects on social identity, worldviews, economic justice, cultural appropriation, diversity, power, and traditions. Creative and aesthetic influences in human experience and cultural expression. Significant music figures, movements, and trends in artistic, political, social, technological, and industrial developments in the U.S. (3H,3C)
1984: SPECIAL STUDY Variable credit course.
2004: HISTORICAL METHODS Explanation of the discipline of history: its history, philosophies, and methods, with emphasis on historical research. (3H,3C)
2054 (STS 2054): ENGINEERING CULTURES Development of engineering and its cultural values in historical and transnational perspectives. Explores the varying knowledge, identities, and commitments of engineers and engineering across different countries. Examines values in emergent infrastructures of engineering education and work, and the participation of engineers and engineering in evolving forms of capitalism. Helps students learn to reflect critically on their knowledge, identities, and commitments in varying curricula and a globalizing world. (3H,3C)
2104: TOPICS AND CRITICAL ISSUES IN US HISTORY Introduction to the problems, methods and skills of the discipline of history through the study of significant themes and critical issues in the history of the United States. Emphasis on the study of source materials and historical interpretations of specific themes in American history. Themes grounded in issues of class, race, gender, and equality in US history. Specific topics will vary from semester to semester. Course may be repeated twice for a maximum of 9 credits. (3H,3C)
2104H: TOPICS AND CRITICAL ISSUES IN US HISTORY This course allows Honors students to explore more thoroughly selected themes in the history of the United States, from its initial settlement to the present. Students must have University Honors status or permission of the instructor to take this course. (3H,3C)
2114: TOPICS AND CRITICAL ISSUES IN EUROPEAN HISTORY Introduction to the problems, methods and skills of the discipline of history through the study of significant themes and critical issues in European history. Emphasis on the study of source materials and historical interpretations. Specific thematic content is variable. Themes grounded in European history/Europe\031s role in world that interrogate the concept of \034the West.\035 Specific topics will vary from semester to semester. Course may be repeated twice for a maximum of 9 credits. (3H,3C)
2114H: TOPICS AND CRITICAL ISSUES IN EUROPEAN HISTORY An exploration of critical issues in modern European history, through the study of source materials and historical interpretations. University Honors standing is required. (3H,3C)
2124: TOPICS AND CRITICAL ISSUES IN WORLD HISTORY Introduction to the problems, methods and fundamental skills of the discipline of history through the study of significant themes and critical issues in world history. Emphasis on the study of source materials and historical interpretations. Specific thematic content is variable. Examines political, economic, social, and cultural change at historically specific periods of time around the world with a focus on drawing comparisons and making connections across regional spaces. Specific topics may vary from semester to semester. May be repeated two times with different content for a maximum of 9 credit hours. (3H,3C)
2165,2166: HISTORY OF FRANCE French history from Roman Gaul to the present. 2165: Roman, Medieval, and Renaissance France; Absolute Monarchy. 2166: The Revolution; Nineteenth and Twentieth Century France. (3H,3C)
2184: HISTORY OF THE BALKANS History of Southeastern Europe from the sixth century to the present. Chief themes are movement of peoples, Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, religious conflicts, social developments, and rival nationalisms. (3H,3C)
2224 (CLA 2224): ANCIENT GREEK AND ROMAN WOMEN Examines the history of ancient Greek and Roman women from ninth century BCE to the fall of the Roman Empire. Analyzes contributions of women to each civilization. Studies construction of and contemporary debates about women\031s ascribed social, political, and cultural roles. (3H,3C)
2234 (CLA 2234): CLASSICS IN THE MODERN WORLD Examines the influences, traditions, and receptions of the ancient Greeks and Romans in the modern world, especially in the United States. Explores the re-interpretation of the ancient Greek and Roman world across mediums, and by leaders and governments in diverse societies. Discusses contexts and ideologies of re-makings of the ancient Greek and Roman world. (3H,3C)
2264: AMERICA IN THE 1960S Surveys the political, social, and cultural history of the U.S. over the long Sixties (mid-1950s to mid-1970s). Examines the civil rights movement, Vietnam War and antiwar movement, identity politics, cultural "revolutions," American liberalism, and American conservatism. Explores how intersection of race, class, gender, ethnicity and age shaped varying experiences of the 1960s. Emphasis on the study of source materials and historical interpretations. (3H,3C)
2275,2276 (AFST 2275, 2276): AFRICAN-AMERICAN HISTORY 2275: African continent through Civil War. Examines trajectory of slavery as well as its global impacts and legacy, the development of racial thought, slave resistance and rebellions, the fight for Emancipation, and African American contributions to culture, economics and society of United States. 2276: Reconstruction through present. Examines impact and legacy of Reconstruction, the fight against Jim Crow segregation, and the social, cultural, political and economic contributions of African Americans in the nineteenth and twentieth century United States. Exploration of the global implications of race relations in the United States. (3H,3C)
2304: AFRICA IN THE MODERN WORLD The peoples and societies of Africa. Emphasis on major themes and developments since the eighteenth century. Historical approach to understanding indigenous African cultures and their encounters with global forces. Concentration on African achievements, the response to colonialism, the rise of modern nationalism, and the problems and prospects of independent Africa. (3H,3C)
2345,2346: HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE EAST History of the Middle East from the seventh century to today, with emphasis on formation of Islamic civilization, medieval and early modern political systems, European imperialism, and the struggle for independence. 2345: seventh century to 1914; 2346: independence, wars, revolutions, and social change since 1914. (3H,3C)
2355,2356: HISTORY OF CHINA China from prehistory to the present. Special attention to political, social, economic, and cultural developments. 2355: Prehistory, Imperial China to the sixteenth century; 2356: late Imperial China to modern and contemporary China. (3H,3C)
2364: HISTORY OF JAPAN Political, social, economic, and cultural development of Japan from earliest times to present; emphasis on problems of modernization in the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. (3H,3C)
2374 (RLCL 2374): GODS AND KINGS IN PREMODERN INDIA History of India from pre-historical times to approximately 1700, with particular focus on the interplay between religion and politics. Emphasis on sources for and interpretations (historiography) of early Indian history. Literary versus archaeological record of pre-historic India, the earliest empires and rulers, and impact of the Islamic and wider world on India. Legacies of ancient and medieval India in the contemporary world. (3H,3C)
2384 (RLCL 2384): GANDHI IN THE MAKING OF MODERN INDIA History of India since approximately 1700, with particular focus on Gandhi’s influence on modern India and the world. Emphasis on sources for and interpretations (historiography) of modern Indian history. Examination of pre-colonial and colonial pasts and legacies. Exploration of Gandhi’s role in political, social, cultural, and religious movements of the early 20th century, and Gandhi’s legacy in the independent states of South Asia and the contemporary world. (3H,3C)
2484: MODERN GERMANY Political, social, economic, and cultural history of Germany since 1815. Discussion of the origins, experience and impact of political ideologies and national unification/reunification, colonial expansion, Nazism, war and genocide, and the role of Germany in Europe and the world. Diverse perspectives on German history and its implications through primary and secondary source materials. Particular focus on historiographical interpretations of the German past. (3H,3C)
2504 (CRIM 2504): CRIME AND PUNISHMENT IN AMERICAN HISTORY Analyzes changing understandings of crime and punishment from the Colonial Era to the Age of Mass Incarceration. Considers how factors of race, ethnicity, class, and gender intersected with changing ideas of criminality and punishments. (3H,3C)
2604 (SOC 2604) (STS 2604): INTRODUCTION TO DATA IN SOCIAL CONTEXT Examines the use of data to identify, reveal, explain, and interpret patterns of human behavior, identity, ethics, diversity, and interactions. Explores the historical trajectories of data to ask how societies have increasingly identified numerical measures as meaningful categories of knowledge, as well as the persistent challenges to assumptions about the universality of categories reducible to numerical measures. (3H,3C)
2624: TOPICS IN THE HISTORY OF DATA IN SOCIAL CONTEXT Examination of the meaning of data in historical context. Exploration of how historical context shapes classification, collection, and interpretation of data. Analysis of data as a meaningful category of human experience. Variable content. May be repeated once for up to six (6) hours of credit. (3H,3C)
2715,2716 (STS 2715, 2716): HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY Development of technology and engineering in their social and cultural contexts. Examines the interaction of people, cultures, technologies, and institutions such as governments, religious bodies, corporations, and citizens’ groups. 2715: Examines the creation and modification of technologies to establish the basic structures of civilization, from prehistory to the Industrial Revolution (about 1800). 2716: Examines the nature of technological change and consequences in society, from about 1800 to present. (3H,3C)
2964: FIELD STUDY Pass/Fail only. Variable credit course.
2974: INDEPENDENT STUDY Variable credit course.
2974H: INDEPENDENT STUDY Variable credit course.
2984: SPECIAL STUDY Variable credit course.
2984H: SPECIAL STUDY Variable credit course.
3004: COLONIAL AMERICA Critical analysis of early American society. Founding and development of the colonies in the 17th century; 18th century colonial life. (3H,3C)
3014: THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Causes, nature, and results of the American Revolution, 1763- 1789. (3H,3C)
3054: THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR Causes, course, and consequences of the American Civil War. Emphasis on transformations in regional and national identity, race relations, the status of African Americans, gender roles, military affairs, and the United States’ place on the world stage. Develop skill in written and oral discourse. (3H,3C)
3064: EMERGENCE OF MODERN AMERICA, 1877-1917 America from end of Reconstruction to World War I: industrial and urban growth, the last frontier, worsening status for African Americans, immigration and new ethnic currents, Populism and Progressivism, cultural ferment, and overseas expansion, America’s entry on the world stage. (3H,3C)
3084: RECENT AMERICA, 1917-PRESENT Social, economic, cultural, and political history of America from the entry into World War I, the turbulent 1920’s, the Great Depression, the New Deal, World War II, postwar prosperity, the Cold War, social and cultural ferment, Vietnam, Watergate, to the new anxieties about the limits of power in the 1980’s. (3H,3C)
3104: UNITED STATES SOCIAL HISTORY Examination of the lives of ordinary people in order to understand the human experience through a focus on race, ethnicity, class, gender, and region. (3H,3C)
3105,3106: WOMEN IN U S HISTORY Roles of women from colonial settlement to the present. Special attention to family experiences, political agendas, and economic contributions of women and to social construction of gender identities. 3105: to 1865; 3106: since 1865. (3H,3C)
3114: HISTORY OF CAPITALISM Examines the changing economic and political conditions under capitalism since the Industrial Revolution. Outlines key ideas and figures that shaped the system of capitalist accumulation and industrial production. Identifies changes in systems of production, exchange, labor, and distribution and distinguishes between organizational innovations, technological advancements, and political responses. Discusses the ethical and moral implications and consequences of state policies, economic exchanges, and individual actions in the capitalist creation and distribution of wealth and various critiques of the system. (3H,3C)
3124 (CRIM 3124): MURDER IN AMERICAN HISTORY Considers how the definition of murder as a crime has changed from the colonial period to the present day. Uses murder cases to study the dynamics of American society in condemning, condoning, or celebrating murder. Asks how cultural factors, including racial prejudice, gender stereotypes, beliefs about sexuality, and class status affected the act of killing, media coverage of the event, societal reactions, and the execution of justice. Topics covered include abortion, lynching, vigilante justice, and the evolution of the legal system. (3H,3C)
3134: SPORTS IN AMERICAN HISTORY Impact of sports in American history. Emphasis on the impact of team sports (college and professional basketball, baseball, and football) and individual sports (golf, boxing, and automobile racing) on the development of American society and culture. (3H,3C)
3144: AMERICAN ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY Explores interactions between Americans and the environment from the time of European contact to the recent past. Traces the sometimes unexpected ways in which nature has shaped history, humans have altered the natural world, environmental attitudes have evolved, and environmental inequalities have arisen. (3H,3C)
3155,3156: HISTORY OF AMERICAN CITIES Growth and development, form and functioning of American cities from the settlement of the country to the present. 3155: 1565 to 1870. 3156: 1870 to the present. (3H,3C)
3164: SEXUALITY IN AMERICAN HISTORY Examines the changing social and cultural meanigns of sexual behavior and identity in American life from the colonial era to the present. Explores relationships between sexuality and power, culture and politics, and government regulation with consideration of theoretical frameworks of interpretation. Focuses on dynamics of race, ethnicity, gender, and class. (3H,3C)
3174 (AINS 3174): NATIVE AMERICAN HISTORY The Native experience in North America or Latin America from 1491 to present. Emphasis on social diversity and organization, resistance to colonization, leadership and cultural change, and political sovereignty among indigenous peoples. Methods for interpreting a variety of primary sources, including texts, material culture, and archaeological findings. Engagements with shifting historiographical perspectives and political movements for recognition of Native sovereignty. (3H,3C)
3205,3206: U.S. SOUTH The southern experience from Old to New South with emphases upon racial accommodation, social hierarchy, cultural identity, political struggle, and intellectual change. 3205: to 1900; 3206: since 1900. (3H,3C)
3214: HISTORY OF APPALACHIA Early settlement, religion, the pre-industrial economy, the coming of the coal and lumber industries, labor activism, politics, migration, and regional identity. (3H,3C)
3224: HISTORY OF VIRGINIA Social, political, cultural, and economic developments in Virginia, from the sixteenth century to the present. (3H,3C)
3234: THE NORTH AMERICAN WEST A study of the peoples and history of the North American West from the sixteenth century through the twentieth. (3H,3C)
3254: THE VIETNAM WAR A critical study of the causes and consequences of the Vietnam War, 1945-1975. Analysis of America’s strategic and military objectives, the nature and conduct of the war, and the growth of the antiwar movement at home. (3H,3C)
3274: THE GREEK CITY History of the ancient Greek city-state (polis) from the Archaic period (800-500 BC) to the creation of the Roman Empire. Principal topics are: origins and definition of the polis; Greek colonization throughout the Mediterranean and Black Seas; the struggle for autonomy in the Classical and Hellenistic periods; and the Hellenizing impact of the polis on non-Greek populations. (3H,3C)
3284: THE ROMAN REVOLUTION History of the Roman world from 264 B.C. to A.D. 180. Particular attention to the three themes of imperialism, revolution, and empire through extensive reading of the contemporary authors. (3H,3C)
3294: ROMAN BRITAIN Examines the social, political, and military origins of early England from Stonehenge to the Norman Conquest; emphasis on archaeology and material culture; and the legacy of the Romans and Romanization on forging a British identity. (3H,3C)
3304: THE WORLD OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT Examines the life and times of Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic World, a new cosmopolitan multicultural world initiated by his conquests. Analyzes the rise of Mecedon, the accomplishments and powers of Alexander, and discusses the world forged after him through analysis of literary and non-literary primary sources. (3H,3C)
3314: THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE Roman Empire in the west from A.D. 180 to A.D. 476 and in the east from A.D. 476 to A.D. 1071. Particular attention to the causes of the fall of the empire in the west and to the Byzantine Empire in the east until the coming of the Turks and the Christian Crusaders. (3H,3C)
3324: THE MEDIEVAL WORLD Characteristic thought and institutions of high and late Middle Ages. (3H,3C)
3334: THE RENAISSANCE The Italian Renaissance in its European context. Emphasis upon the culture and institutions of Italian states from 1300 to 1500. (3H,3C)
3344: THE ERA OF THE REFORMATION Development of Protestantism and reformation of the Catholic Church from 1500 to about 1600. Emphasis upon social, political, and economic factors as well as theology. Examination of conflicts engendered by the reformation movements. (3H,3C)
3354: REFORM AND REVOLUTION IN EARLY MODERN ENGLAND Examines the political, social, economic, and religious history of early modern England. Focus on the English Reformation and descent into Civil War and Revolution. Discussion of the Houses of Tudor and Stuart and their roles in radically transforming England into a constitutional monarchy in which the rule of law reigned supreme. Engagement with diverse perspectives on the religious, social, and political upheaval of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries through focused study of primary and secondary source materials. (3H,3C)
3364: THE AGE OF REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON The French Revolution in its European and global context, with particular attention to social and political causes of unrest, strategies of popular mobilization, debates about authority and order, the emergence of empires, and the long-term implications of revolutionary change. (3H,3C)
3374: FRENCH EMPIRE History of French empire from the seventeenth century to the present, in the Carribean, Canada, Asia, North America and Sub-Saharan Africa. Considers indepdendence movements and the effects of post-colonial migrations on metropolitan France. Focus on issues of religion, race, and human rights (3H,3C)
3394: EUROPE SINCE WORLD WAR II Europe’s political and economic recovery since 1945; development of the "Cold War"; Soviet Union and Eastern Europe before and after Stalin; Western European integration and development of a consumer society; Ostpolitik and Detente; decolonization and neo-colonialism; Europe’s position in the world economy, dependence on imported materials and energy; the Revolutions of 1989 and post-Marxist Eastern Europe. (3H,3C)
3484: NAZI GERMANY: HISTORY AND MEMORY Causes, course, and consequences of the rise of National Socialism in Germany. Political, economic, social, and cultural aspects of life in Germany. Conditions of Weimar Germany; fascism; the emergence of the Nazi Party and its acquisition, exercise and abuse of power; transformation of German society; the problem of Hitler; the Second World War and Holocaust; and memory and representation of the Nazi period. (3H,3C)
3494 (JUD 3494) (RLCL 3494): THE HOLOCAUST This course provides a historical account, a psychological analysis, and an occasion for philosophical contemplation on the Holocaust. We will examine the deliberate and systematic attempt to annihilate the Jewish people by the National Socialist German State during World War II. Although Jews were the primary victims, Gypsies, people with disabilities, homosexuals, Jehovah’s Witnesses and political dissidents were targeted; we will discuss their fate as well. The class will be organized around the examination of primary sources: written accounts, photographic and film, and personal testimony. (3H,3C)
3504 (RLCL 3504): THE AGE OF THE CRUSADES The origins and development of religious violence examined from an interdisciplinary and cross-cultural perspective; the place of that phenomenon in medieval society. Christianity, Islam, Judaism and their interactions in the medieval world. (3H,3C)
3524: EUROPEAN MILITARY HISTORY TO 1789 Analysis of change in warfare from the ancient Greeks to the French Revolution. Emphasis on the social and technological causes of military change. (3H,3C)
3534: MODERN MILITARY HISTORY Evolution of warfare in its political and social setting since the French Revolution. Discussion of both European and American military institutions. (3H,3C)
3544: WORLD WAR II Examines the origins, nature, and consequences of the Second World War in transnational perspective. Discussion of social, economic, political and diplomatic conditions that led to and shaped the conduct of the war. Engagement with diverse perspectives on the war and its implications through primary and secondary source materials. (3H,3C)
3554: AGE OF GLOBALIZATION An examination of historical forces that have shaped patterns of globalization, with emphasis on the late twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Key themes: debates about the origins of globalization, causes and consequences of global inter-relatedness, influence of key people, events, and ideas on patterns of globalization, and the effects of disease, technology and environment on processes of globalization. (3H,3C)
3564: THE COLD WAR Examines politics, society, and culture of the Cold War in transnational perspective. Discussion of origins of the Cold War and the emergence of "superpowers;" cultural, economic and territorial imperialism in the Cold War; the role of ideology; lived experience and the legacy of the Cold War. Engagement with diverse perspectives on the Cold War and its implications through primary and secondary source materials. (3H,3C)
3584: COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA Major themes and issues in Colonial Latin American History. Discussion of the Spanish and Portuguese empires in the western hemisphere, emphasizing indigenous responses to colonization, the privatization of land and labor, the Church and village as financial and cultural institutions, imperial policies and reforms, and the collapse of empire after 300 years. (3H,3C)
3594: THE RISE OF MODERN LATIN AMERICA Major themes and issues in Modern Latin American History. Discussion of the rise of Latin American nations, stressing the internal and external challenges new republics confronted during the nineteenth century and the opportunities and conflicts of the twentieth century. (3H,3C)
3604: RUSSIA TO PETER THE GREAT Russian history from the founding of Russia in the ninth century to the reign of Peter the Great in the early eighteenth century, with special attention to political developments, changes in society and culture and regional context. (3H,3C)
3614: IMPERIAL RUSSIA Russian history from Peter the Great to the Revolution of 1917, with special attention to political developments, changes in society and culture, and the impact of the regional context. (3H,3C)
3624: HEALTH AND ILLNESS IN AFRICAN HISTORY Examines key subjects and themes in the history of health, medicine, and disease in African history. Topics include indigenous health systems, colonial medicine, and post-colonial health crises, including HIV/AIDS. (3H,3C)
3634: MAU MAU: COLONIALISM AND REBELLION IN KENYA Examines the social, political, economic, and cultural origins of the Mau Mau rebellion in Kenya; insurgency and counter-insurgency; and the continuing debates in Kenya over the meaning of Mau Mau. (3H,3C)
3644: TWENTIETH-CENTURY RUSSIA The history of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the present, with particular emphasis on collectivization, industrialization, ideology, international relations, and other factors that have determined the peculiar character of the Soviet state. (3H,3C)
3654: ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT Examines the origin and evolution of the Arab-Israeli Conflict from the late Ottoman era to present. Considers a variety of perspectives on the major events, places, people and history of the conflict, including the British Mandate period, independence, and post-1967. Connects the relationship between events and ideas in Palestine/Israel and their local, regional and global significance through analysis and synthesis of primary and secondary texts. Promotes interpretation of the conflict and potential solutions in written and oral form, both from the student\031s own and alternative points of view. (3H,3C)
3664: REVOLUTIONARY CHINA Ideological and institutional development of the Chinese Communist movement since 1920; emphasis on problems of historical change in modern China. (3H,3C)
3674: TOPICS IN CHINESE HISTORY Examination of variable topics in Chinese history, ranging from the beginnings of civilization to the recent past. Examines the primary sources and histriographic debates of a particular issue. Explores the diversity within China and its relatiionship with the rest of the world. Can be repeated with different content up to 9 hours. (3H,3C)
3684: CULTURAL HISTORY OF THE SOVIET UNION AND THE SUCCESSOR STATES History and main characteristics of cultural life and the arts in the former Soviet Union, with emphasis on film, music, literature, and the relationship between elite and popular culture. (3H,3C)
3694: HISTORY THROUGH FILM This course introduces students to critical issues in history and representation, utilizing film to analyze central historical issues. The specific thematic content is variable. Course may be repeated for up to 9 credits. (2H,3L,3C)
3705,3706 (STS 3705, 3706): HISTORY OF SCIENCE Conceptual and institutional development of physical and biological sciences viewed within a cultural and societal context. 3705: Early Science; 3706: Modern Science. (3H,3C)
3714: WAR AND MEDICINE Examines the relationship between war and medicine. Focus on suffering and care during and after major conflicts, both on the battlefield and the home front. Emphasis on race, class, and gender. (3H,3C)
3724: HISTORY OF DISEASE, MEDICINE, AND HEALTH Development of Western concepts and institutions of disease, medicine, and health with emphasis on nineteenth century to present. Social construction of disease, and relationship between health and social, economic, and political structures. Special attention to roles of race, class, gender and ethical issues in medical care and research, and to the lived experience of suffering, treatment and healing. (3H,3C)
3734 (STS 3734): HISTORY OF MODERN BIOLOGY This course explores the development of biology from the Enlightenment to the end of the twentieth century, with a particular emphasis on biology’s impact on society. (3H,3C)
3744: SOCIAL HISTORY OF FILM This course introduces students to critical issues in the social history of film, examining the production and consumption of film in specific historical moments as well as the effects of film on society, culture, and politics. The specific thematic content is variable. May be repeated with different content for a maximum of 9 credits. (3H,3C)
3754: PUBLIC HISTORY Investigation of the ways in which historians research, interpret, and present the past to the public. (3H,3C)
3764: ORAL HISTORY: METHODS AND PRACTICES Explores the theory and methodology of oral history practice. Considers the use of oral history interviews in historical research, and explores questions of ethics, interpretation, and the construction of memory. Includes training in technical operations and a variety of interview techniques, transcription, and historical use of interviews. (3H,3C)
3774: DIGITAL HISTORY Develops skills and methods for researching and presenting history in a digital environment, with special emphasis on use of digital media as a tool for public historians. (3H,3C)
3864 (AFST 3864) (IS 3864): DEVELOPMENT AND HUMANITARIANISM IN AFRICA Examines the history of western development and humanitarian projects in Africa, considering western and African perspectives in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Discussion of slavery and abolition, the civilizing mission, modernization and development theory, the impact of humanitarian projects, and international volunteerism. Provides a foundation for students interested in international service learning or careers with NGOs or international aid agencies. No prior knowledge of African history required. (3H,3C)
3914: CRITICAL READING AND ANALYSIS IN HISTORY Develops critical reading skills in history. Demonstrates that historical knowledge is part of a scholarly conversation that grows and evolves over time. Assesses the critical role of interpretation in history, investigates historical controversies and debates, and develops skills to evaluate historiographical trends. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)
3954: STUDY ABROAD Variable credit course.
3984: SPECIAL STUDY Variable credit course. X-grade allowed.
4004: TOPICS IN SOCIAL AND CULTURAL HISTORY Selected topics in social and cultural history. May be repeated with different content. 3 other hours of history and junior standing required. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)
4914: HISTORY RESEARCH SEMINAR Variable topic, writing-intensive, capstone course for history majors. Provides in-depth knowledge of a specific historical subfield. Utilizes archival historical sources, online research databases, and existing literature to create an original work of historical scholarship. May be repeated with different content up to 6 hours. Junior standing or above required. Pre: 3914 or 3904. (3H,3C)
4964: FIELD STUDY Pass/Fail only. Variable credit course.
4974: INDEPENDENT STUDY Variable credit course.
4974H: INDEPENDENT STUDY Variable credit course.
4984: SPECIAL STUDY Variable credit course. X-grade allowed.
4994: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH Variable credit course.
4994H: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH Variable credit course.