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College of Engineering

Electrical and Computer Engineering

www.ece.vt.edu/ECE students with project

Luke Lester: Head and Professor
University Distinguished Professor: F. C. Lee
University Distinguished Professor Emeritus: A. G. Phadke
Alumni Distinguished Professor Emeritus: C. W. Bostian
American Electric Power Professor: D. Boroyevich
Bradley Professor Emeritus of Communications: W. H. Tranter
Bradley Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Electromagnetics: G. S. Brown
Clayton Ayre Professor: A. Wang
Joseph R. Loring Professor in ECE: S. Rahman
Willis G. Worcester Professor in ECE: J. H. Reed
Thomas Phillips Professor Emeritus: W. L. Stutzman
Virginia Microelectronics Consortium Chair: M. K. Orlowski
Steven O. Lane Junior Faculty Fellow: J. B. Baker
James S. Tucker Professor in ECE:
J. S. Lai
W. S. (Pete) White Professor of Innovation in Engineering Education:
J.G. Tront
Grant A. Dove Professor:
Yue (Joseph) Wang
Professor Emeritus:
J. R. Armstrong; I. M. Besieris; W. A. Davis; D. A. deWolf; F. G. Gray; T. Pratt; K. Ramu; F. W. Stephenson;
J. S. Thorp; H. F. VanLandingham
Associate Professor Emeritus: R. W. Conners; W. R. Cyre; R. L. Moose; C. E. Nunnally
Professors: M. Agah; P. M. Athanas; A. A. Beex; R. P. Broadwater; R. M. Buehrer; C. R. Clauer; G.D. Earle; D. S. Ha; Y. T. Hou;
M. S. Hsiao; M. T. Jones; G. Q. Lu; T. L. Martin; S. F. Midkiff; L. M. Mili; K. Ngo; J-M. Park; P. Plassmann; T. C. Poon; S. Raman; B. Ravindran; S. M. Riad; A. Safaai-Jazi; W. A. Scales; S. K. Shulka; D. J. Stilwell; J. Xuan
Associate Professors: A. L. Abbott; S. M. Bailey; W. T. Baumann; R. Burgos; V. A. Centeno; C. Clancy; S. W. Ellingson;
L. J. Guido; J. De La Ree Lopez;   M. Hudait; D. K. Lindner; A. B. MacKenzie; M. Manteghi; L. Nazhandali; W. G. Odendaal; C. D. Patterson; J. Paul;  J. M. Ruohoniemi; P. Schaumont; K. S. Tam; C. L. Wyatt; Y. Xu; Y. Yang
Assistant Professors: D. Bhatra; H. Dhillon; X. Jia; K.-J. Koh; Q. Li; R. J. Moran; D. Parikh; W. Saad; C. Wang; G. Yu; H. Zeng; W. Zhou; Y. Zhu
Professors of Practice: G. Manzo; D. Sweeney
Instructors: K. Cooper; D. McPherson; L. Pendleton; J. Thweatt


Overview

    The Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering offers bachelor of science degrees in electrical engineering (EE) and computer engineering (CPE). The difference between these two degrees is one of emphasis. Electrical engineering concentrates on physical processes and design in communications, power and energy, systems and controls, electronics, electromagnetics, and digital systems. Computer engineering emphasizes the development of computer hardware and software systems, such as networks, embedded systems, design automation, and machine intelligence. In addition to undergraduate degrees, the department also offers M.S., M.Eng., and Ph.D. programs in both EE and CPE. An accelerated undergraduate/graduate (UG/G) program is available for qualified undergraduates.

    Electrical engineers (EEs) and computer engineers (CPEs) create important and exciting technologies, systems and applications that make the world a better place for all of us.  EEs and CPEs are inventing new ways to generate, distribute and use electric power that are more efficient, more sustainable and friendlier to the environment.  For example, wider use of solar energy relies on improved photovoltaic devices, power electronics for energy conversion, and power grids.  Some of our most critical global infrastructures, including the Internet, mobile voice and data networks, and the electric power grid are designed by EEs and CPEs.  And, EEs and CPEs design sensors and embedded systems to monitor intelligent buildings and transportation systems.  Applying innovative technologies to biology and the healthcare industry, EEs and CPEs create techniques for medical imaging, methods in synthetic biology to better understand disease, micro-electromechanical systems for medical diagnostics, implantable devices for health monitoring and drug delivery, and information systems to improve healthcare delivery.  To meet the challenge of cybersecurity, EEs and CPEs design hardware and software for cryptographic algorithms and develop methods to ensure private communications through the Internet and wireless devices. They design new devices and systems for high-performance computing and networking. They build satellites and instruments to improve communications and enhance our knowledge of space and the Earth. And, EEs and CPEs enhance our leisure time by creating new ways to listen to music, watch movies, play games, communicate with friends, and build social networks.

    Students in the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering learn from faculty who work at the cutting-edge of engineering research and bring the excitement of their discoveries to the classroom.  Engineers want to make things that work and EE and CPE students get hands-on opportunities to build systems from the beginning of their studies.  In the freshman year, students explore applications of electrical and computer engineering, such as medical imaging and cryptography.  In the sophomore year, EE and CPE students use personal, portable equipment and components to build and explore simple digital and analog electronic systems, which become more complex each semester.  Laboratories and team projects throughout the curriculum contribute to an enriching hands-on, minds-on learning experience. By their senior year, students  have the option of participating in a team-based, industry-sponsored design project that spans two semesters in which they solve real-world engineering problems while learning project management and team-building skills.

    Electrical engineering and computer engineering are dynamic and fast changing fields that drive innovation and solutions to global challenges. The ECE faculty has created a program of study that provides each graduate with a firm foundation in mathematics, physics, and engineering principles, and with broad experience in different areas of EE and CPE. The program enables our graduates to excel in their EE and CPE specialties, while gaining the tools to adapt to the technical changes and career opportunities they will experience in the future. EE and CPE students develop effective communication and teamwork skills and gain knowledge of ethics, all of which are essential to professional success. EE and CPE graduates are prepared to pursue careers in industry and government, advanced graduate work in EE and CPE, and other advanced professional degrees.

    ECE seeks to develop tomorrow’s engineering and technical leaders and innovators. Students can enhance their undergraduate experience by participating in multidisciplinary team projects, cooperative education and internships, research experiences for undergraduates, study abroad programs, dual degree and minor programs in other fields, and mentoring programs. The Cooperative Education (co-op) and Internship Program is highly recommended, as is participation in professional societies, including the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM). ECE works with the Ted and Karyn Hume Center for National Security and Technology to develop future leaders for the US government. ECE offers many scholarships for academic excellence, leadership and service, as well as for participation in various special academic programs.

Degree Requirements

    The graduation requirements in effect at the time of graduation apply. When choosing the degree requirements information, always choose the year of your expected date of graduation. Requirements for graduation are referred to via university publications as “Checksheets”. The number of credit hours required for degree completion varies among curricula. Students must satisfactorily complete all requirements and university obligations for degree completion.

    The university reserves the right to modify requirements in a degree program. However, the university will not alter degree requirements less than two years from the expected graduation year unless there is a transition plan for students already in the degree program.

    Please visit the University Registrar website at http://www.registrar.vt.edu/graduation/checksheets/index.html for degree requirements.

Undergraduate Course Descriptions (ECE)

1574: OBJECT-ORIENTED ENGINEERING PROBLEM SOLVING WITH C++
Problem solving techniques for engineering problems, primarily from the fields of electrical and computer engineering; procedural and object-oriented program development, editing, compiling, linking, and debugging using the C++ programming language. Must have C- or better in the prerequisites. Pre: (ENGE 1024 or ENGE 1215), (MATH 1205 or MATH 1205H or MATH 1225). (2H,2L,3C) I,II.

2004: ELECTRIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Introduction to the basic laws and techniques for the analysis of electric circuits. Calculation of the response of circuits with resistors, independent sources, controlled sources, and operational amplifiers. The transient analysis of basic circuits with R, L, and C components. An introduction to AC analysis and phasors. Requires a C- or better in ENGE 1104 or 1204. Pre: ENGE 1104 or ENGE 1204 or ENGE 1114 or ENGE 1216. Co: 2074, MATH 2214. (3H,3C)

2014: ENGINEERING PROFESSIONALISM IN ECE
Overview of the nature and scope of the electrical and computer engineering profession. Working in a diverse team environment; professional and ethical responsibility; the impact of engineering solutions in a global and societal context; contemporary issues; and life-long learning. Sophomore standing required. Co: 2504, 2004. (2H,2C)

2054: APPLIED ELECTRICAL THEORY
For students in the Mechanical Engineering program or by permission of the ECE Department. Fundamentals of electric circuits; circuit laws and network theorems, operational amplifiers, energy storage elements, response of first and second order systems, AC steady state analysis. Construction, analysis, and characterization of circuits with student-owned Lab-in-a-Box system. Pre: PHYS 2306. Co: MATH 2214. (2H,2L,3C)

2074: ELECTRIC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS LABORATORY
Construction, analysis, and characterization of circuits with student-owned Lab-in-a-Box system. Experiments include: characterization of breadboard backplane wiring; component tolerances; Ohm's law; Kirchoff's laws; series and parallel resistors; voltage and current dividers; delta-wye configurations; mesh-current and node- voltage analysis; superposition and Thevenin equivalents; inverting and non-inverting amplifier circuits; series RC and RL circuits; discharging LEDs and integrator and differentiator circuits. Introductory design experiments include a simple voltmeter and a flashing traffic arrow. Must have a C- or better in ENGE 1104 or 1204. Pre: ENGE 1104 or ENGE 1204. Co: 2004, MATH 2214. (3L,1C)

2164: EXPLORATION OF THE SPACE ENVIRONMENT
This introductory course covers a broad range of scientific, engineering, and societal aspects associated with the exploration and technological exploitation of space. Topics covered include: science of the space environment; space weather hazards and societal impacts; orbital mechanics and rocket propulsion; spacecraft subsystems; applications of space-based technologies. (3H,3C)

2204: ELECTRONICS
Introduction to basic electronic devices including diodes and transistors and their operating principles. Analysis of electronic circuits operating under dc bias and switching conditions. Applications of devices in digital electronic circuits. Pre: 2004. Co: 2274. (3H,3C)

2274: ELECTRONIC NETWORKS LABORATORY I
Principles of operation of electrical and electronic test equipment and applications to measurement of circuit parameters. Transient and steady state response of RLC networks. Applications of laws and theories of circuits. Design, prototyping, and testing of electronic devices and circuits. Pre: 2074. Co: 2204. (3L,1C) I,II,IV.

2500: COMPUTER ORGANIZATION AND ARCHITECTURE
Computer organization and architecture: instruction formats and construction; addressing modes; memory hierarchy (cache, main memory and secondary memory) operation and performance; simple pipelines; basic performance analysis; simple OS functions, particularly as they relate to hardware; virtual memory; computer I/O concepts, including interrupt and DMA mechanisms; intercomputer communication concepts. Must have C- or better in prerequisite 2504. Pre: 2504. (3H,3C)

2504: INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER ENGINEERING
An introduction to the design and operation of digital computers, including information representation, logic design, integrated circuits, register transfer description, hardware description languages, basic computer organization and assembly-level programming. The relationship between software and hardware is stressed. This course duplicates material in CS2504 and may not be taken for credit towards graduation if CS2504 is also taken. Pre: 1574. (3H,3C)

2524: INTRODUCTION TO UNIX FOR ENGINEERS
Fundamental concepts of operating systems, emphasizing a hands-on introduction to UNIX. User interfaces, UNIX shell commands, the UNIX file system, task management, common system utilities, the UNIX programming environment. Students gain experience with system installation and administration. Duplicates CS 2204. Must have C- or better in prerequisite 2574. Pre: 2574. (2H,2C)

2534: MICROCONTROLLER PROGRAMMING AND INTERFACING
Operation and applications of microcontrollers, including system level organization, analysis of specific processors, and software and hardware interface design. Pre: 2504. (3H,3L,4C)

2574: INTRODUCTION TO DATA STRUCTURES AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
Introduces fundamental data structures, algorithms, and abstract data types. Main topics include data structures such as arrays, linked lists, stacks, queues, graphs, and trees, and algorithms such as those that are used for list manipulation, graph searches, sorting, searching, and tree traversals. Implementation of data structures and algorithms in C++. Pre: 1574. (3H,3C)

2704: SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS
Analysis techniques for signals and systems. Signal representation, including Fourier and LaPlace transforms. System definitions and properties, such as linearity, causality, time invariance, and stability. Use of convolution, transfer functions and frequency response to determine system response. Applications to circuit analysis. Pre: (2004 or 2004H), (MATH 2214 or MATH 2214H). (3H,3C) I,II.

2964: FIELD STUDY
Variable credit course.

2974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
A minimum GPA of 2.0 in all ECE courses is required for enrollment.
Variable credit course.

2984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.

3004: AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS
Application of the basic laws and techniques of circuit analysis to AC circuits. Complex numbers and algebra with an emphasis on phasor representation of circuits. Calculation of the frequency response of circuits with R, L, and C components, independent sources, controlled sources, and operational amplifiers. Analysis of AC steady-state circuits and determination of average power. Magnetically coupled circuits. Laplace and Fourier transforms. Representation of circuits by two-port models. Pre: 2704. Co: 3074. (3H,3C)

3054: ELECTRICAL THEORY
For students in curricula other than ECE. Fundamentals of electric circuits: circuit laws and network theorems, operational amplifiers, energy storage elements, response of first and second order systems. AC steady state analysis. Pre: PHYS 2306. Co: MATH 2214. (3H,3C)

3074: AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS LABORATORY
Construction, analysis, and characterization of circuits with student-owned Lab-in-a-Box system. Experiments include: sinusoids and phasors including impedance, admittance, and Kirchhoff's laws; sinusoidal steady- state including node and mesh analysis, Thevenin and Norton equivalent, and op amps; ac power analysis including instantaneous and average power, power factor, and complex power; magnetically coupled circuits including mutual inductance, energy in a coupled circuit, and transformers; frequency response including transfer functions, Bode plots, resonance, and passive and active filters; and two-port circuits. A C- or better is required for all prerequisites. Pre: 2074. Co: 3004. (3L,1C)

3105-3106: ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS
Maxwell's equations and their application to engineering problems. 3105: transmission lines, electrostatics, magnetostatics. 3106: time-varying fields, Maxwell's Equations, waves, propagation, guided waves, radiation. Pre: PHYS 2306, (MATH 2224 or MATH 2224H or MATH 2204 or MATH 2204H), (ECE 2004 or ECE 2004H) for 3105; 3105 for 3106. (3H,3C)

3204: ANALOG ELECTRONICS
Small signal modeling of transistors. Basic architecture and functionality of linear amplifiers including transistor biasing circuits, current sources, differential amplifier, common emitter amplifier, common source amplifier, emitter follower, and source follower. Operational amplifier operating principles, circuit design, and applications. Frequency response of single stage and multistage amplifiers. Feedback systems and stability analysis of amplifiers. Pre: 2204, 2704. Co: 3274. (3H,3C)

3254: INDUSTRIAL ELECTRONICS
Fundamentals of electronics, including basic device principles. Include digital, operational amplifier, and analog analysis for industrial applications and magnetic circuits. For students in the Mechanical Engineering program or by permission of the ECE Department. Pre: 2054. (3H,3C)

3274: ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS LABORATORY II
Design, build, and test amplifiers and other electronic circuits to meet specifications. Bipolar and field-effect transistors, diodes, integrated circuits such as operational amplifiers, and passive components are used. Gain, bandwidth, input and output impedance, positive and negative feedback, and circuit stability are implemented in the designs. Digital oscilloscopes, ammeters, voltmeters, function generators, and power supplies are used. A grade of C- or better is required in all pre-requisite courses. Pre: 2274, 3074. Co: 3204. (3L,1C)

3304: INTRODUCTION TO POWER SYSTEMS
Basic concepts of AC systems, single-phase and three-phase networks, electric power generation, transformers, transmission lines, electric machinery and the use of power. Pre-requisite 3004 with C- or better. Pre: 3004. (3H,3C)

3354: ELECTRIC POWER ENGINEERING LABORATORY
Laboratory experiments based on principles of electric power engineering. Co: 3304. (3L,1C) II.

3544: DIGITAL DESIGN I
Design techniques for combinational and sequential logic. Design of digital circuits using standard integrated circuit chips and programmable logic devices. Computer simulation will be used to validate designs. Prototypes will be constructed to demonstrate design functionality. Pre: 2504. (3H,3L,4C)

3574: APPLIED SOFTWARE DESIGN
An introduction to applied software design methods for use in the writing of efficient, reusable, and modular C++ programs. Introduces the use of the following: classes, inheritance, and polymorphism; design patterns; high-level programming techniques using libraries, generics, and containers; widgets, models, and views; software frameworks for embedded systems; and advanced techniques ranging from multi-threading to reflective programming. Pre: 2574. (3H,3C)

3614: INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS
Analysis and design of analog and digital communication systems based on Fourier analysis. Topics include linear systems and filtering, power and energy spectral density, basic analog modulation techniques, quantization of analog signals, line coding, pulse shaping, and transmitter and receiver design concepts. Applications include AM and FM radio, television, digital communications, and frequency-division and time-division multiplexing. Pre: 2704, STAT 4714. (3H,3C)

3704: CONTINUOUS AND DISCRETE SYSTEM THEORY
Continuous- and discrete-time system theory. Block diagrams, feedback, and stability theory. System analysis with Bode diagrams. Discrete-time stability, difference equations, Z-transforms, transfer functions, Fourier transforms, and frequency response. Sampling of continuous systems and an introduction to digital filtering. Pre: 2704. (3H,3C) I,II.

3964: FIELD STUDY
Variable credit course.

3974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.

3984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.

4104: MICROWAVE AND RF ENGINEERING
Passive and active Radio Frequency and microwave components and circuits for wireless communications; transmission-line theory; planar transmission-lines and waveguides; S-parameters; resonators; power dividers and couplers; microwave filters; sources, detectors, and active devices; modern RF & microwave CAD; measurement techniques. Pre: 3106, 3204, 2014. (3H,3L,4C)

4114: ANTENNAS
Antenna fundamentals, analysis and design principles, and a survey of antenna types including: arrays, wire antennas, broadband antennas, and aperture antennas. Pre: 3106, 2014. (3H,3C) II.

4124: RADIO WAVE PROPAGATION
Behavior of radiated electromagnetic waves in terrestrial, atmosphere, space, and urban environments; path, frequency and antenna selection for practical communication systems; propagation prediction. Pre: 3106. (3H,3C)

4134: FIBER OPTICS APPLICATIONS
Theory of optical fiber waveguide propagation and design applications in communication and sensing systems. I Pre: 3106. (3H,3C)

4144: INTRODUCTION TO OPTICAL INFORMATION PROCESSING
Modern wave optics. The application of Fourier transforms to image analysis, optical spatial filtering, and image processing. Pre: 3106. (3H,3C) II.

4154: INTRODUCTION TO SPACE WEATHER
The space environment from the Sun to the Earth's upper atmosphere and the practical consequences (space weather) of this environment on the modern technologies and human health. Concepts in space plasma physics. Examples of observations and data utilized to illustrate the environment and its dynamic variability. Pre: 3106. (3H,3C)

4164: INTRODUCTION TO GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) THEORY AND DESIGN
Fundamental theory and applications of radio navigation with the Global Positioning System GPS. Satellite orbit theory, GPS signal structure and theory, point positioning with pseudoranges and carrier phases, selective availability, dilution of precision, differential GPS, atmospheric effects on GPS signals. Pre: 3106 or AOE 4134, ECE 2014. (3H,3L,4C)

4194: ENGINEERING PRINCIPLES OF REMOTE SENSING
Physical principles involved in remote sensing of Earth's environment and their implementation in engineering systems: fundamentals of electromagnetic wave propagation, scattering by matter, effects of propagation media, passive and active systems, remote sensing platforms, data processing, systems integration, and introductory concepts important for the design and analysis of remote sensing engineering systems. Pre: 3106. (3H,3C)

4205-4206: ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT DESIGN
Stability and response of feedback amplifier, wideband amplifiers, operational amplifier characteristics, waveform generators and wave shaping, nonlinear circuit applications, signal generators, and photolithography. Design of analog electronic circuits, circuit simulation, response characterization, and printed circuit construction. Pre: 3204 for 4205; 4205, 2014 for 4206. (3H,3C) I,II.

4214: SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICE FUNDAMENTALS
Fundamental semiconductor device physics associated with semiconductor materials and devices with an in-depth coverage of p-n and Schottky diodes, bipolar junction transistors and metal-oxide semiconductor and junction field effect transistors. Pre: 2204 or MSE 3204 or PHYS 3455. (3H,3C)

4220: ANALOG INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN
Integrated circuit design in silicon bipolar, MOS, and BiCMOS technologies for communications, sensor, instrumentation, data conversion, and power management applications.  Models for integrated circuit active devices in bipolar and MOS technologies; noise; current mirrors, active loads and references; amplifiers and output stages; operational amplifiers; and an introduction to data conversion circuits. Circuit design at the IC level; modern VLSI CAD software. A grade of C- or better required in pre-requisite 3204. Pre: 3204. (3H,3C)

4224: POWER ELECTRONICS
Power devices and switching circuits including inverters and converters; electronic power processing and control as applied to industrial drives, transportation systems, computers, and spacecraft systems. I Pre: 3204, 2014. (3H,3C)

4234 (MSE 4234): SEMICONDUCTOR PROCESSING
Manufacturing practices used in silicon integrated circuit fabrication and the underlying scientific basis for these process technologies. Physical models are developed to explain basic fabrication steps, such as substrate growth, thermal oxidation, dopant diffusion, ion implantation, thin film deposition, etching, and lithography. The overall CMOS integrated circuit process flow is described within the context of these physical models. I. Pre: 2204 or 3054. (3H,3C)

4235-4236 (MSE 4235-4236): PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRONIC PACKAGING
This two-course sequence covers principles and analyses for design and manufacture of electronic packages. 4235: design issues such as electrical, electromagnetic, thermal, mechanical, and thermomechanical, are covered at the lower levels of packaging hierarchy. Materials and process selection guidelines are discussed for the manufacturing and reliability of chip carriers, multichip and hybrid modules. 4236: system-level package design issues for meeting application requirements and modeling tools for analyzing electronic packages are introduced. Materials and process selection guidelines are discussed for the manufacturing and reliability of packaged electronic products. Pre: 2204 or 3054 for 4235; 2204, (4235 or MSE 4236) for 4236. Co: 3054 for 4235. (3H,3C)

4244: INTERMEDIATE SEMICONDUCTOR PROCESSING LABORATORY
Design, layout, fabricate, and characterize microelectronic devices. Analyze test results to verify performance to the predetermined specifications. Required oral and written reports. A C- or higher is required in all pre-requisite courses. Pre: (4234 or MSE 4234), ECE 2014. (1H,6L,3C)

4284: POWER ELECTRONICS LABORATORY
Design and testing of electronic power processing systems for commercial and aerospace applications. Co: 4224. (3L,1C) II.

4304: DESIGN IN POWER ENGINEERING
A study of the principles in electric power engineering. Expert systems, superconductivity, DC transmission, motor control, system protection, high performance motors, solar energy, microcomputer applications, machine design, computer-aided design, digital relaying and space station application. I Pre: 3304, 2014. (3H,3C)

4334: POWER SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND CONTROL
Development of methods for power analysis and control. An analysis and design of systems for steady state, transient, and dynamic conditions. Digital solutions emphasized. I Pre: 3304. (3H,3C)

4344: ELECTRIC POWER QUALITY FOR THE DIGITAL ECONOMY
Causes, consequences and solutions of power quality problems that affect the operation of computerized processes and electronic systems. Industry standards, monitoring techniques and economic consideration of power quality issues. Pre: 3304. (3H,3C)

4354: POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION
Protection of power apparatus and systems. Fuses. Voltage and current transducers. Relays. Coordination of relays. Pilot channels. Grounding practices. Surge phenomena. Insulation coordination. Pre: 4334. (3H,3C) II.

4364: ALTERNATE ENERGY SYSTEMS
Electric energy from alternative energy sources including solar, wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal and ocean. Characteristics of direct conversion, electromechanical conversion, and storage devices used in alternative energy systems. Power system issues associated with integration of small scale energy sources into the electricity grid. Pre: STAT 4714. (3H,3C) II.

4374: POWER SYSTEM PROTECTION LABORATORY
Experimental verification of principles and practice of protective relaying. Experiments and design projects to demonstrate the principles and techniques of industrial power system design. Fuses, time overcurrent, and instantaneous relays. Differential relaying for transformers. Distance relaying. Current and voltage transformers. Pre: 4334. Co: 4354. (3L,1C) II.

4405-4406: CONTROL SYSTEMS
4405: Introduction to the design of feedback compensation to improve the transient and steady-state performance of systems. Course covers modeling techniques, root locus analysis and design, Nyquist criterion, and frequency domain compensation. Pre: 3704 for 4405; 4405 for 4406. (3H,3C)

4424 (CS 4824): MACHINE LEARNING
Algorithms and principles involved in machine learning; focus on perception problems arising in computer vision, natural language processing and robotics; fundamentals of representing uncertainty, learning from data, supervised learning, ensemble methods, unsupervised learning, structured models, learning theory and reinforcement learning; design and analysis of machine perception systems; design and implementation of a technical project applied to real-world datasets (images, text, robotics). A grade of C- or better in prerequisites. Pre: 2574, (STAT 4604 or STAT 4705 or STAT 4714). (3H,3C)

4500: FUNDAMENTALS OF COMPUTER SYSTEMS
Fundamental principles and concepts of computer systems. Computer hardware; Boolean logic; number systems and representation; design and operation of digital logic; instruction set architectures and computer organization; and basics of data communication and networking. Partially duplicates ECE 3504 and 4504. Master of Information Technology students only. Pre: Ability to program in a modern high-level programming language. (3H,3C)

4504 (CS 4504): COMPUTER ORGANIZATION
Overview of the structure, elements and analysis of modern enterprise computers. Performance evaluation of commercial computing. Past and emerging technology trends. Impact of parallelism at multiple levels of computer architecture. Memory and storage. Fundamental computer system descriptions, Amdahl's Law, Flynn's Taxonomy. A grade of C or better required in prerequisites. Pre: 2504 or CS 3214. (3H,3C)

4514: DIGITAL DESIGN II
Advanced digital design techniques for developing complex digital circuits. Emphasis on system-level concepts and high-level design representations while meeting design constraints such as performance, power, and area. Methods presented that are appropriate for use with automated synthesis systems. Commercial hardware description language simulation and synthesis tools used for designing a series of increasingly complex digital systems, and implementing those systems using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Pre: 3544. (3H,3L,4C)

4520: DIGITAL AND MIXED-SIGNAL SYSTEM TESTING AND TESTABLE DESIGN
Various topics on testing and testable design for digital and mixed-signal systems are studied: fault modeling, logic and fault simulation, fault modeling, automatic test pattern generation, deterministic ATPG, simulation-based ATPG, delay fault testing, design for testability, built-in-self-test and fault diagnosis. Pre: 3504, 2574. (3H,3C)

4524: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
Problem solving methods; problem spaces; search techniques; knowledge representation; programming languages for AI; games; predicate logic; knowledge-based systems; machine learning; planning techniques; reactive systems; artificial neural networks; natural language understanding; computer vision; robotics. Pre: 2574, STAT 4714. (3H,3L,4C)

4530: HARDWARE-SOFTWARE CODESIGN
An introduction to the design of mixed hardware-software systems, focusing on common underlying modeling concepts, the design of hardware-software interfaces, and the trade-offs between hardware and software components. Students will use simulation tools to conduct experiments with mixed hardware-software systems in the area of embedded systems. Pre: (3504 or 3544), 2534. (3H,3C)

4534: EMBEDDED SYSTEM DESIGN
Introduction to the design of embedded computer systems; design, implementation, and analysis of embedded computer hardware and software; design, implementation, and debugging of complex software applications on embedded systems; and fundamentals of real-time operating systems for embedded computers. Semester-long design project including written and oral presentations. C- or better required in pre-requisites. Pre: 3574, 2534, 2014. (3H,3L,4C)

4540: VLSI CIRCUIT DESIGN
Introduction to the design and layout of Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI). Emphasis is placed on digital CMOS circuits. Static and dynamic properties of MOSFET devices, along with integrated circuit fabrication are examined. Computer-aided design tools are used to produce working integrated circuit designs. Pre: 2204, 2504. (3H,3C)

4550: REAL-TIME SYSTEMS
Introduction to real-time systems, real-time scheduling including multiprocessor scheduling, real-time operating systems (kernels), real-time communication, real-time programming languages, reliability and fault-tolerance, and real-time system requirements and design methods. Design, analysis, and implementation of real-time kernel mechanisms and real-time applications using kernels such as Linux and programming languages such as C (with POSIX primitives) and Ada 95. Must have a grade of C- or better in prerequisites 4534 or CS 3204. Pre: 4534 or CS 3214. (3H,3C) II.

4560: COMPUTER AND NETWORK SECURITY FUNDAMENTALS
This course introduces fundamental security principles and real-world applications of Internet and computer security. Topics covered in the course include legal and privacy issues, risk analysis, attack and intrusion detection concepts, system log analysis, intrusion detection and packet filtering techniques, computer security models, computer forensics, and distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks. Must have C- or better in ECE 4564 or CS 4254. Pre: 4564 or CS 4254. (3H,3C)

4564: NETWORK APPLICATION DESIGN
Application program interface and network transport services including User Datagram Protocol and Transmission Control Protocol from the Internet Protocol suite. Client-server organization and design of synchronous, asynchronous, and multithreaded client and server applications. Design, implementation, and testing techniques to improve robustness and performance. Partially duplicates CS 4254 and credit will not be allowed for both. Pre: (2504, 2574). (3H,3C)

4570 (CS 4570): WIRELESS NETWORKS AND MOBILE SYSTEMS
Multidisciplinary, project-oriented design course that considers aspects of wireless and mobile systems including wireless networks and link protocols, mobile networking including support for the Internet Protocol suite, mobile middleware, and mobile applications. Students complete multiple experiments and design projects. Pre: 4564. (3H,3C)

4574: LARGE-SCALE SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT FOR ENGINEERING SYSTEMS
Large-scale software implementations of the hierarchy of engineering analysis, design, and decision evaluation. Computer-aided engineering programs with state-of-the-art computer tools and methods. Operator overloading, dynamic polymorphism, graphical user interfaces, generic programming, dynamic link libraries, and multiple threads. Pre: 3574. (3H,3C)

4580: DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING
This course provides an introduction to basic concepts, methodologies and algorithms of digital image processing focusing on the two major problems concerned with digital images: (1) image analysis and object restoration for easier interpretation of images, and (2) image analysis and object recognition. Some advanced image processing techniques (e.g., wavelet and multiresolution processing) will also be studied in this course. The primary goal of this course is to lay a solid foundation for students to study advanced image analysis topics such as computer vision systems, biomedical image analysis, and multimedia processing & retrieval. (3H,3C)

4605-4606: RADIO ENGINEERING
Wireless application circuit design for gain and filter control at radio frequencies to interface the baseband processing systems and the antennas of communication systems. 4605: Design of radio transmitter and receiver circuits using scattering-parameter methods. Circuits include oscillators, radio frequency amplifiers and matching networks, mixers and detectors. 4606: Design of amplitude, frequency, and pulse-modulated communication systems, including modulators, detectors, and the effects of noise. Design basics and guidelines for phase-locked loops and several power amplifier configurations. Pre: 3105, 3204, 3614, 2014 for 4605; 4605 for 4606. (3H,3C)

4614: TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS
An introduction and overview of the architecture, technology, operation, and application of telecommunication networks. Major topics include the convergence of telephone and computer networks, the layered architecture of computer networks with emphasis on the Internet, and wireless network technology and applications. Pre: 2504, 2704, STAT 4714. (3H,3C)

4624: DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND FILTER DESIGN
Analysis, design, and realization of digital filters. Discrete Fourier Transform algorithms, digital filter design procedures, coefficient quantization. Pre: C or better in 3704 Pre: 3704, 2014. (3H,3C)

4634: DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS
System level analysis and design for digital communications systems: analog-to-digital conversion, digital baseband communications, carrier modulation formats, matched filters, bandwidth efficiency, receiver design, link budgets, signal-to-noise ratio, bit error rates in additive- white-noise Gaussian (AWGN) channels, and multiple access. Must have a grade of C- or better in prerequisites 3614 and STAT 4714. Pre: 3614, STAT 4714. (3H,3C)

4644: SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS
Theory and practice of satellite communications. Orbits and launchers, spacecraft, link budgets, modulation, coding, multiple access techniques, propagation effects, and earth terminals. Pre: 3614. (3H,3C) II.

4664: ANALOG & DIGITAL COMMUNICATIONS LABORATORY
Laboratory experiments which deal with the design and measurement of analog and digital communication systems. Concepts include SNR, Modulation Index, PCM, and spread spectrum. I Pre: 3614. Co: 4634. (3L,1C)

4675-4676: RADIO ENGINEERING LABORATORY
Laboratory techniques for radio frequencies including the design of amplifiers, oscillators, and a single-side-band receiver. Associated measurements will be used. Pre: 3106, 3204 for 4675; 4675 for 4676. Co: 4605 for 4675; 4606 for 4676. (3L,1C) I,II.

4704: PRINCIPLES OF ROBOTICS SYSTEMS
Introduction to the design, analysis, control, and operation of robotic mechanisms. Introduction to the use of homogeneous coordinates for kinematics, dynamics, and camera orientation; sensors and actuators, control, task planning, vision, and intelligence. Pre: (2574, STAT 4714) or (ME 3514, STAT 3704). (3H,3C) II.

4805-4806: SENIOR DESIGN PROJECT
Industry-like experience emphasizing technical project management and professional and ethical development. Students working in teams will complete a substantial hardware, or hardware related software project. Proposal process, design concept, detailed design, implementation and test. Important "real life" engineering professionalism. Two semester long design project. 4805: Electrical Engineering majors must have completed the following courses with a C- or better: ECE 2014, ECE, 3204, and any 3 of the following courses (ECE 3106, ECE 3304, ECE 2534, ECE 3614, ECE 3704). Computer Engineering majors must have completed the following courses with a C- or better: ECE 2014, ECE 2534, ECE 3544 and ECE 3574. 4806: A C- or better in prerequisite Pre: 4805. (3H,3C)

4944: CYBERSECURITY SEMINAR
Theory and practice of cybersecurity problems and solutions for building secure computing hardware, software, and networks. Technical, social and legal aspects of secure systems. Historical and ongoing attacks that spawn real-world responses. Ongoing research in cybersecurity defenses. Senior standing. Pass/Fail only. Pre: 2504 or CS 2505. (1H,1C)

4964: FIELD STUDY
Variable credit course.

4974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
A minimum in-major GPA of 2.0 is required for enrollment.
Variable credit course. X-grade allowed.

4984: SPECIAL STUDY
A minimum in-major GPA of 2.5 is required for enrollment.
Variable credit course. X-grade allowed.

4994: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
A minimum GPA of 2.0 in all ECE courses is required for enrollment.
Variable credit course. X-grade allowed.

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Virginia Tech 2015-2016 Undergraduate Course Catalog and Academic Policies