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College of Engineering

Materials Science and Engineering

www.mse.vt.edu
E-mail: undergrad@mse.vt.edu

D.E. Clark, Head
Professors: D.E. Clark; N.E. Dowling1; D. Farkas; R.W. Hendricks;
G-Q. Lu2; W.T. Reynolds, Jr.; D.D. Viehland
Associate Professors: A.O. Aning; L.V. Asryan; S.G. Corcoran;
A.P. Druschitz; L.J. Guido2; P.K. Lu; M. Murayama; G.R. Pickrell
Assistant Professors:; C. Hin3; A.R.Whittington4
Research Associate Professors: J-F. Li; S. McGinnis; C.T.A. Suchicital
Instructors: C.B. Burgoyne1; R. H. Helbling; P. L. Huffman; T.W. Staley
Professors Emeritus: J.J. Brown, Jr.; R.O. Claus; G.V. Gibbs; D.P.H. Hasselman; C.W. Spencer
Adjunct Faculty: J.T. Abiade; M.J. Bortner; T.W. Chan; M.M. Julian; 
S.L. Kampe; M.J. Kelley; K.V. Logan; P. Mellodge; T.K. Ooi;  A.A. White
Affiliated Faculty5: R.C. Batraa; S.W. Casea; R.V. Davalose; A. Goldstienj; J.R. Heflinb; D. Holmesa; J.L. Hunterf; E. Josephe; H. Marandc; R.B. Moorec; K. Ngoi; S.H. Renneckarh; C.B. Williamsg; L. Winfreyg; R.H. Yoond
1 Joint appointment with Electrical and Computer Engineering
2 Joint appointment with Engineering Science and Mechanics
3 Joint appointment with Chemical Engineering
4Joint appointment with Geosciences
5 Faculty with regular appointments in other departments: (a) Engineering Science and Mechanics; (b) Physics; (c) Chemistry; (d) Mining and Minerals Engineering; (e) Institute for Critical Technology and Applied Science; (f) Nanoscale Characterization and Fabrication Laboratory; (g) Mechanical Engineering; (h)Sustainable Biomaterials; (i) Electrical and Computer Engineering; (j) Chemical Engineering


Overview

    Materials engineers and scientists study the structure and properties of engineering materials on scales ranging from the atomic through the microscopic to the macroscopic. These materials include ceramics, metals, polymers, composites, biomaterials, nanomaterials, semiconductors, and electronic, magnetic, and photonic materials. Materials engineers develop new materials, improve traditional materials, and manufacture materials economically through synthesis, processing, and fabrication. They seek to understand physical and chemical phenomena in material structures and to measure and characterize materials properties of all kinds including mechanical, electrical, optical, magnetic, thermal, and chemical. They predict and evaluate the performance of materials as structural or functional elements in engineering systems and structures. Because the performance of virtually all engineered products depends upon the properties of the various materials which make up the components of the system, engineering and technological advances are commonly limited by the properties and cost of the manufactured materials which are currently available. As a consequence, the discipline of materials science and engineering is central and critical to the success of several identified strategic national quality-of-life initiatives, including biotechnology, nanotechology, energy, information technology, vehicular transportation systems, national defense and security, and environmental stewardship.

    Significant opportunities exist for graduates in the aerospace, automobile, transportation, medical, microelectronics, telecommunications, chemical, petroleum, energy storage, power generation, and energy conservation industries, as well as within the basic industries producing materials--for example, the copper, aluminum, steel, ceramics, glass, and polymer industries. Opportunities also exist in government-operated engineering centers and research laboratories. Graduates work in entry level engineering, manufacturing, materials selection and design, quality assurance and control, research and development, technical consulting, management, and sales and marketing. Graduates have an excellent background for post-graduate studies in science, engineering, medicine, law, and business.

    Students of MSE can optionally participate in the cooperative education program in which qualified students may alternate semesters of study with semesters of professional employment. Study-abroad opportunities are also possible. Honors-eligible students may participate in a formalized program of study leading to one of several university honors degrees (see http://www.univhonors.vt.edu).

Program Educational Objectives and Student Outcomes

    Educational Objectives:

    The goal of the BS degree program in MSE is to provide the educational foundation that enables alumni to pursue their personal career objectives.  Historically, the majority of our alumni become valued members of industrial and/or research teams within the field of materials science or related technical disciplines while a smaller percentage pursue graduate education or other personal career objectives.   

    The specific objectives for the BS degree program in MSE are to produce alumni who are:

    • effective communicators with written, oral, and visual media:
    • able to apply critical thinking skills to engineering and research problems: and
    • effective learners able to apply new technical tools, techniques, and knowledge specific to their field of employment or graduate studies. 

    Student Outcomes

    Upon graduation, students completing the B.S. degree program in MSE will be able to:

    General Outcomes
    (A) apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering
    (B) design and conduct experiments, as well as analyze and interpret data
    (C) design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, societal, global, political, ethical, health and safety, manufacturability, and sustainability
    (D) function on multidisciplinary teams while maintaining independent thought and expression
    (E) identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems
    (F) understand professional and ethical responsibility
    (G) communicate effectively
    (H) understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global
    economic, environmental, and societal context
    (I) recognize the need for, and to engage in, lifelong learning
    (J) apply knowledge of contemporary issues
    (K) use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice

    Materials Specific Outcomes
    (L) apply advanced science (such as chemistry and physics) and engineering principles to materials systems/problems
    (M) understand the scientific and engineering principles underlying the four major elements of the field: structure, properties, processing, and performance
    (N) apply and integrate knowledge from each of the above four elements of the field to solve materials selection and design problems
    (O) utilize experimental, statistical, and computational methods consistent with the program educational objectives.

Curriculum

Students typically enter the MSE Department following completion of their first year studies within the College of Engineering, as administered by the Department of Engineering Education (EngE); a description of required first year coursework can be found within the EngE section of this catalog.

In addition to foundation courses in MSE, students tailor an individualized program of elective study. Fifteen credits of technical electives will be selected to emphasize certain subdisciplines of MSE (e.g., metals, ceramics, polymers, electronic materials, composites, biomaterials, nanomaterials, etc.) or to prepare for a career in certain application areas (e.g., manufacturing, aerospace, automotive, information technology, microelectronics, etc.).  Course-work totals 131 credit hours as detailed on the BS in MSE checksheet which can be found at http://www.registrar.vt.edu/graduation/checksheets/index.html.  Students  expecting to graduate beyond the displayed checksheet years should use the last projected term until the checksheet for that calendar year becomes available.

The undergraduate curriculum contains a nationally-recognized integrated program of instruction in engineering communication including writing, public speaking, proposal preparation, reporting, research skills, critical and creative thinking, and graphical presentation. More information regarding this unique program can be found at http://www.mse.vt.edu/ecp.

The MSE students have pursued various minors including Microelectronics, Green Engineering, Chemistry, Mathematics, Music, a foreign language, and various others.

The B.S. in MSE degree program at Virginia Tech is accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET, http://www.abet.org.

Undergraduate Courses (MSE)

    1004: MATERIALS IN TODAY'S WORLD
    An introductory course designed for the student with a basic high school science background who wishes to understand and learn about the exciting materials developments which are affecting us all in today's world. The course will introduce the structures and properties of metals, ceramics, polymers (plastics), composites, and materials for electronic and optical applications. Students will also gain an appreciation for the processing and design limitations of materials used in everyday applications. (1H,1C)

    2014: MATERIALS ENGINEERING TRANSITION
    Supplemental coverage of introductory topics not included in courses delivered to non-MSE majors. Pre: 2034 or 3094 or AOE 3094. (1H,1C)

    2034: ELEMENTS OF MATERIALS ENGINEERING
    This course is designed to introduce the non-MSE student to the structures and properties of metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. In addition, students will gain an understanding of the processing and design limitations of these materials, as well as being introduced to new classes of materials being developed to meet the ever expanding range of material requirements.  Non-MSE majors only. Pre: CHEM 1035. Co: PHYS 2305. (3H,3C)

    2044: FUNDAMENTALS OF MATERIALS ENGINEERING
    This course is designed to introduce the MSE major to the structures and properties of metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, and electronic materials.  Students will also gain an understanding of the processing and design limitations of materials.  Topics fundamental to the further study of materials, such as crystal structures, phase diagrams, and materials design and processing will be emphasized as foundations for future MSE courses. Pre: CHEM 1035. Co: PHYS 2305. (4H,4C)

    2054: FUNDAMENTALS OF MATERIALS SCIENCE
    Introduces MSE majors to fundamental underlying concepts governing phase equilibrium, microstructure, electronic properties of materials, and transport phenomena as a foundation to understanding materials behavior and processing. Pre: 2044, CHEM 1035, PHYS 2305. (3H,3C)

    2114: MATH PROGRAMMING MSE I
    Basic computational and graphical functions in mathematics oriented programming languages using data and engineering examples from the field of Materials Science. Students apply general methods to problems of their choice through mini- projects. Pre: 2034 or 2044 or 3094 or AOE 3094. (1H,1C)

    2884: MATERIALS ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT I
    Library engineering research skills, technical computer graphics, basic engineering workplace communication skills, basic engineering teamwork skills, introduction to engineering ethics, resumes and letters of introduction, gender issues in the workplace, professional poster presentations, and engineering public speaking. Pre: MSE major, sophomore status. (3L,1C)

    2974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
    Variable credit course.

    2974H: INDEPENDENT STUDY
    Variable credit course.

    2984: SPECIAL STUDY
    Variable credit course.

    2994: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
    Variable credit course.

    2994H: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
    Variable credit course.

    3004H: MATERIALS IN TOMORROW'S WORLD
    The role of materials and materials development in society and technological progress.  The role of research in the solutions to pressing global, materials-related scientific and engineering challenges. New and envisioned materials forms developed in response to present and future applications needs, and the ethical, environmental and energy implications thereof. Pre-requisite: Honors students enrolled in the sciences or engineering. Pre: CHEM 1035, PHYS 2305. (3H,3C)

    3044: TRANSPORT PHENOMENA IN MSE
    Mass transport (continuum and atomistic diffusion), heat transport and fluid flow (momentum transport). Analytical and computer based methods for solving transport problems. Pre: 2034 or 2044, MATH 2214. (3H,3C)

    3054 (ESM 3054): MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS
    Mechanical properties and behavior of engineering materials subjected to static, dynamic, creep, and fatigue loads under environments and stress states typical of service conditions; biaxial theories of failure; behavior of cracked bodies; microstructure-property relationships and design methodologies for homogeneous and composite materials. Pre: ESM 2204, (MSE 2034 or MSE 2044 or MSE 3094 or CEE 3684). (3H,3C)

    3064 (ESM 3064): MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF MATERIALS LABORATORY
    Laboratory experiments on behavior and mechanical properties of solid materials. Tension, compression, bending, hardness, nano-indentation, and impact tests; behavior of cracked bodies; fatigue and crack growth tests; creep deformation; microstructure-property relationships; laboratory equipment, instrumentation, and computers. Co: 3054. (3L,1C)

    3094 (AOE 3094): MATERIALS & MANUFACTURING FOR AERO & OCEAN ENGINEERS
    This course introduces the student of Aerospace and/or Ocean Engineering to the fundamental properties of materials typically required for structural design. The performance characteristics of metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites are presented and contrasted. Foundation principles underlying materials manufacturing are also presented with the goal of providing an understanding of how processing affects material properties and performance.  Must have a C- or better in pre-requisite CHEM 1035. Pre: CHEM 1035. Co: ESM 2204, PHYS 2305. (3H,3C)

    3104 (GEOS 3504): MINERALOGY
    Principles of modern mineralogy, crystal chemistry, and crystallography, with emphasis on mineral atomic structure and physical property relationships, mineralogy in the context of geology, geochemistry, environmental science and geophysics, phase equilibria, mineral associations, and mineral identification, and industrial applications of minerals.  There are three required field trips during the semester. Pre: MATH 1016, CHEM 1036. (2H,3L,3C)

    3114: MATHEMATICS PROGRAMMING IN MATERIALS SCIENCE II
    Advanced computational and graphical methods in mathematics oriented programming languages. Students develop programs that solve and/or provide visualizations of solutions to materials science and engineering problems. Pre: 2114. (1H,1C)

    3134: CRYSTALLOGRAPHY AND CRYSTAL STRUCTURES
    Provides a comprehensive foundation in crystallography including lattices, point groups, space groups, reciprocal lattices, properties of x-rays, and electron density maps, all leading to a formal description of structures and an interpretation of the published crystallographic data. Pre: (2034 or 2044). Co: 3204. (3H,3C)

    3204: FUNDAMENTALS OF ELECTRONIC MATERIALS
    Introduction to the electrical, magnetic, and optical properties of solid-state materials.  Development of atomic scale models for physical phenomena that are observable at the macroscopic scale. Connection is made between basic materials properties and the operational characteristics of selected solid-state devices. Pre: 2054, PHYS 2306. (3H,3C)

    3304: PHYSICAL METALLURGY
    Deformation of crystalline solids and its relationship to crystal structure and crystal defects: crystal structures of metals, dislocations and plastic deformation, vacancies, recovery, recrystallization, grain growth, deformation twinning and martensite. Pre: 2034 or 2044. (3H,3C)

    3314: MATERIALS LABORATORY I
    Sample preparation for materials characterization techniques including various types of microscopy, spectroscopy, diffraction, and hardness testing.  Instruction in the use of heat treating equipment and polishing and chemical etching procedures. Pre: 2044. Co: 3304. (3L,1C)

    3324: ELEMENTARY METAL CASTING LABORATORY
    Introduction to metal casting processes; gating, risering, molding and puring. Hands-on experience. Emphasis on safe foundry practices. Oral and written reports are required. Pre: 2034 or 2044, ISE 2214. Co: 3354. (3L,1C)

    3334: TEST METHODS FOR FOUNDRY LABORATORIES
    The properties of foundry sand, molten metal and castings are measured using standard laboratory test procedures. Safe foundry practices are emphasized. Oral and written reports are required. Pre: 2034 or 2044, ISE 2214. Co: 3354. (1H,2L,2C)

    3344: GOVERNMENT REGULATION OF THE METAL CASTING INDUSTRY
    Introduction to the role of federal, state, and local regulation of the metal casting industry. Implementation of OSHA, EPA, and DEQ regulations in an inherently dangerous industry. Emphasis is placed on the implementation of these regulations in a University environment as implemented in the VT-FIRE facility. Visits to VT-FIRE and other local production foundries are included. Oral and written reports required. Pre: (2034 or 2044), ISE 2214. (3H,3C)

    3354: FOUNDRY SAFETY
    Provides comprehensive training in foundry safety procedures and policies. (May register multiple times). Pass/Fail only. Pre: (2034 or 2044), ISE 2214. Co: 3324, 4324, 3334. (2H,1C)

    3884: MATERIALS ENGINEERING PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT II
    Public speaking and workplace communications for materials engineers, business writing for the engineering workplace, teamwork skills, engineering ethics, collaborative writing, engineering management skills, and gender issues in the workplace. Extends the basic treatment of these topics given in MSE 2884.  Pre: MSE major, junior status. Pre: 2884. (3L,1C)

    3954: STUDY ABROAD
    Variable credit course.

    4034: THERMODYNAMICS OF MATERIALS SYSTEMS
    Topics in thermodynamics on the solution of materials selection and design related problems such as materials stability at high temperatures and in corrosive chemical environments. Thermodynamic principles important in controlling equilibrium in single component systems and
    multicomponent solid solutions and in establishing the thermodynamic driving force in kinetic processes which are important in materials processing unit operations. Estimation of thermodynamic properties and equilibrium calculations in multicomponent and multiphase systems. Pre: CHEM 1036, (MSE 2044 or MSE 2034 or MSE 3094 or AOE 3094). (3H,3C)

    4044: POWDER PROCESSING
    Processing methods associated with powder synthesis, characterization, colloidal processing, and forming of powder compacts. Theory of solid state and liquid phase sintering. Pre: 3044. (3H,3C)

    4055-4056: MATERIALS SELECTION AND DESIGN I AND II
    4055: Selection of materials for engineering systems, based on constitutive analyses of functional requirements and material properties. 4056: The role and implications of processing on material selection. Pre: 3054, 3044, (3204, 4414) or (3204, 4554) or (4414, 4554) for 4055; 4055 for 4056. (3H,3C)

    4075-4076: SENIOR DESIGN LABORATORY
    A capstone design course centered around an open-ended, faculty-advised senior project involving the design of a process, material, or a technique for solving a technological problem.  Senior standing in MSE required. Pre: 4644 for 4075; 4075 for 4076. Co: 4085, 4055 for 4075; 4086 for 4076. 4075: (3L,1C) 4076: (6L,2C)

    4085-4086: SENIOR DESIGN RECITATION
    Capstone course run in parallel with faculty-advised Senior Project Laboratory (MSE 4075-4076).  Topics in engineering professional practice, project planning, and reporting.  Preparation of proposals, interim reports, final project reports, and discussion of the environmental, social, and economic impacts of engineering.  Instruction in design theory, ethics, continuous learning, and global issues.  Senior Standing in MSE. Pre: 3884 for 4085; 4085 for 4086. Co: 4095, 4075 for 4085; 4096, 4076 for 4086. 4085: (2H,2C) 4086: (1H,1C)

    4095-4096: HONORS SENIOR DESIGN LABORATORY
    A capstone design course centered around an open-ended, faculty-advised senior honors project involving the design of a process, material, or a technique for solving a technological problem. Outcomes and work effort are consistent with that expected of honors students. Individual preparation and presentation of an original senior honors thesis. Enrollment in University Honors, and senior standing in MSE required. Pre: 4644 for 4095; 4095, 3324 for 4096. Co: 4085, 4055 for 4095; 4086 for 4096. (6L,2C)

    4154 (ESM 4154): NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF MATERIALS
    Concepts and methods of nondestructive evaluation of materials. Discussion of techniques and mathematical bases for methods involving mechanical, optical, thermal, and electromagnetic phenomena; design for inspectability; technique selection criteria; information processing and handling; materials response measurement and modeling; signal analysis Pre: 3054, PHYS 2176 or PHYS 2306. (3H,3C)

    4164 (MINE 4164): PRINCIPLES OF MATERIALS CORROSION
    Introduction to the scientific principles of materials corrosion and corrosion protection.  Topics include: thermodynamics of materials corrosion, including potential- PH (Pourbaix) diagrams, kinetics of corrosion reactions and mixed potential theory, types of corrosion (uniform, galvanic, crevice, pitting, fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, intergranular, and hydrogen embrittlement), material/environmental factors that promote or prevent the various types of corrosion, and methods and techniques of corrosion testing.  Co: MSE 4034 or ME 3114 or ME 3124 or ME 3134. (3H,3C)

    4234 (ECE 4234): SEMICONDUCTOR PROCESSING
    Manufacturing practices used in silicon integrated circuit fabrication and the underlying scientific basis for these process technologies. Physical models are developed to explain basic fabrication steps, such as substrate growth, thermal oxidation, dopant diffusion, ion implantation, thin film deposition, etching, and lithography. The overall CMOS integrated circuit process flow is described within the context of these physical models. Pre: ECE 2204 or ECE 3054. (3H,3C)

    4254: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF THIN FILMS
    Study of the fundamental properties and microstructure of materials in thin film (thin coating) form, their interaction with the substrate, and their processing techniques. Areas of application to exemplify the interdisciplinary nature of the field, including the electronics, biomedical, military, aerospace, and construction industries. Pre: 4206 or 4215 or 4124. Co: 3255. (3H,3C)

    4304: METALS AND ALLOYS
    This course covers the production, properties and uses of commercially important metals and alloys.  The influence of structure, chemistry, and processing upon the properties of metals is emphasized. Alloy selection is discussed. Mechanical, electrical, thermal and chemical characteristics of ferrous and nonferrous alloys are studied. Pre: 2034 or 2044 or AOE 3094. (3H,3C)

    4305,4306: PHYSICAL METALLURGY AND MODELING OF METAL CASTING
    Casting processes; solidification and its influence on the structure and chemistry of castings; role of fluid flow and heat transfer in mold design; origin and control of casting defects. Pre: 3304 for 4305; 2034 or 2044 for 4306. (3H,3C)

    4324: ADVANCED METAL CASTING LABORATORY
    Advanced metal casting processes; no-bake sand molds; investment casting; rapid prototyping; melting and casting of aluminum, bronze, iron and steel. Casting finishing including shot and sand blasting. Hands-on experience. Emphasis on safe foundry practices. Oral and written reports are required. Pre: 3324. Co: 3354. (1H,1L,2C)

    4334: APPLIED MATERIALS ANALYSIS
    Integration of fundamental materials theory and materials characterization techniques, through demonstrations and lab exercises. Solution of materials problems through a holistic melding of data obtained from electron microscopy and spectroscopy instruments with theoretical models. Pre: 3304, 3314. (2H,3L,3C)

    4354: STRENGTH AND FRACTURE
    Microstructural origins of strengthening, deformation, and fracture in engineering materials. Pre: 3304. Co: 3064, 3054. (1H,1C)

    4384: NUCLEAR MATERIALS
    An introduction to materials for nuclear applications with emphasis on fission reactors.  Fundamental radiation effects on materials; material properties relevant to structural, moderator, reflector, blanket, coolant, control shielding and safety systems; processes such as nuclear fuel cycles, fuel enrichment and reprocessing; and related structural systems. Pre: (3044 or ME 3304), (MSE 3054 or ESM 3054 or ME 3614). (3H,3C)

    4414: PHYSICAL CERAMICS
    Study of the relationships between the physical properties (thermal, optical, mechanical, electrical and magnetic) and the structure and composition of ceramics at the atomic and microscopic level as affected by processing and service environment. Emphasis will be placed on application and design using structural ceramics. Co: 4424. (3H,3C)

    4424: MATERIALS LABORATORY II
    Processing and characterization of materials; exploration of the influence of processing parameters on physical and mechanical properties.  Emphasis on material synthesis. Pre: (2044 or 2034 or 3094 or AOE 3094). Co: 3304. (3L,1C)

    4554: POLYMER ENGINEERING
    This course is designed to introduce the student to polymers from the MSE perspective.  The basics of polymer syntheses and polymerization will be outlined. The relationship between processing, structure, and properties will be presented with respect to the performance and design requirements of typical polymer applications. Pre: 4034. (3H,3C) II.

    4574: BIOMATERIALS
    Lectures and problems dealing with materials used to mimic replace body functions.  Topics include basic material types and possible functions, tissue response mechanisms, and considerations for long term usage. Integrated design issues of multicomponent materials design in prosthetic devices for hard and soft tissues are discussed. Must meet prerequisite or have graduate standing in the College of Veterinary Medicine. Pre: 3054 or ESM 3054. (3H,3C)

    4584: BIOMIMETIC MATERIALS
    Introduction to structure property relationships in biological materials such as wood, bone, shells, spider silk, connective tissue, blood vessels and jellyfish. Proteins and polysaccharides, biosynthesis and assembly, biomineralization, hierarchical organization. Introduction to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.  Life cycle, environmental aspects of biofabrication. Pre: CHEM 1036 or BIOL 1106 or MSE 2034 or MSE 3094 or AOE 3094. (3H,3C)

    4604: COMPOSITE MATERIALS
    The application of the fundamental concepts of mechanics, elasticity, and plasticity to multiphase and composite materials.  Constitutive equations for the mechanical and physical properties of metal, ceramic, and polymeric matrix composites.  The role of processing and microstructure on properties. Pre: (2034 or 2044 or 3094), (ESM 2204). (3H,3C)

    4614: NANOMATERIALS
    Synthesis of 0-dimensional nanoparticles, 1-dimensional nanotubes, nanowires, and nanorods; 2-dimensional nanoribbons and nanofilms, and specialized nano-features on substrates.  Characterization of nanomaterials.  Processing into higher order dimensions. Chemical, physical, mechanical, and electrical properties of nanomaterials. Application of nanomaterials. Pre: 4034. (3H,3C)

    4644: MATERIALS OPTIMIZATION THROUGH DESIGNED EXPERIMENTS
    Methods of analysis of variation in materials systems, manufacturing or R&D through the use of statistical methods including experimental design techniques. Instructional examples related to Materials Science and Engineering. Pre: (3314 or 4424). (3H,3C)

    4974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
    Variable credit course.

    4974H: INDEPENDENT STUDY
    Variable credit course.

    4984: SPECIAL STUDY
    Variable credit course.

    4994: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
    Variable credit course.

    4994H: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
    Variable credit course.


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    Virginia Tech 2013-2014 Undergraduate Course Catalog and Academic Policies