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2007-2008 Undergraduate Course Catalog & Academic Policies

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Liberal Arts and Human Sciences

History

Virtual Jamestownwww.history.vt.edu/index.htm

Daniel B. Thorp, Chair
Distinguished Professor: J. I. Robertson, Jr.
Professors: L.J.Arnold; F.J. Baumgartner; W.C. Davis; A.R. Ekirch;
R.F. Hirsh; W.L. Ochsenwald; C.A. Shifflett; P.R. Wallenstein
Associate Professors: M.V. Barrow, Jr.; G.R. Bugh; B. Bunch-Lyons;
E.T. Ewing; H. Farrar; T.C. Howard; K. Jones; M. Mollin; A. Nelson;
P. Schmitthenner; N.L. Shumsky; R. Stephens; D.B. Thorp
Assistant Professors: G. G. Kroeker; H. Schneider;
B. L. Shadle
Adjunct Professors: G. Becker; A. F. Laberge; B.J. Reeves; A. Schuetz;
S. Watkins; T. Watkins
Career Advisor: T.C. Howard (231-8374)


Overview

    The study of history enables students to learn about the people and events of the past. In the process, it also helps them develop their ability to think logically, to conduct research, and to analyze the various ways in which the past continues to shape the present.

    The history curriculum prepares students for graduate or professional schools; positions in teaching, business, or government; and a variety of other careers. Faculty advisors are available to consult with students regarding career choices, education certification, and internships, as well as to provide assistance in planning general academic progress. An honors program is offered for outstanding history majors.

    Courses at the 1000 level are introductory surveys open to anyone with an interest in history but without a strong background in the subject. Students intending to continue in history should take these courses in their freshman or sophomore years. Courses at the 2000 level, with the exception of Historical Methods, are national surveys for a general undergraduate audience. Courses at the 3000 level, primarily for sophomores and above, provide more focused and detailed study of a period, place, or topic introduced at the 1000 or 2000 level. Courses at the 4000 level are writing-intensive seminars and are generally restricted to students with junior standing or above who have already taken six hours or more of college-level history.

    In addition to fulfilling the requirements of the Curriculum for Liberal Education, history majors must complete 39 hours of course work in history including: no more than nine hours at the 1000 level (all of which must be taken before the senior year); History 2004 (must receive a "C" or better); at least 24 hours of course work at the 2000 or 3000 levels distributed among the four groups identified on the department's Information Sheet for Majors (available at the departmental office or on the department's Homepage); three hours of course work at the 4000 level.

    Majors may select a concentration within the history major. Concentrations require that at least 12 of the 24 hours of history taken at the 2000 or 3000 level be appropriate to the field of concentration, and the completion of 6 hours of undergraduate research. Concentrations are available in: Military/Political/Diplomatic History; Social/Cultural/Economic History; Global/Comparative History; and History of Science/Technology/Medicine/the Environment.

    A faculty advisor and/or professional advisor will assist each major in planning a suitable course of study. The student is expected to confer with the faculty advisor at regular intervals regarding the progress of his or her studies.

    To earn a minor in history, a student must complete satisfactorily (with at least a 2.0 average) a minimum of 18 hours of history courses. These 18 hours must include at least three hours of credit from each of three of the four groups of history courses identified on the Information Sheet for Majors. For purposes of the minor, History 1115 and 1116 may be considered as Group I credit; History 1024, 1025, and 1026 may be considered as Group II credit; and History 1214 and 1224 may be considered as Group III credit. At least six of the 18 hours must be on the 2000 level or above, and at least six more of the 18 hours must be at the 3000 level or above.

Satisfactory Progress

    University policy requires that students who are making satisfactory progress toward a degree meet minimum criteria toward the Curriculum for Liberal Education (see "Academics") and toward the degree in history.

    Satisfactory progress toward the B.A. in history requires that:

  • Upon having attempted 72 semester credits (including transfer, advanced placement, advanced standing, credit by examination, freshman rule), students must have completed:

    1. HIST 2004: Historical Methods
      (with grade of "C" or above)
      3
      History electives
      12
      Total Credits
      (15)

  • Upon having attempted 96 semester credits, students must have an in-major grade point average of 2.0 or above.

Undergraduate Courses (HIST)

1004: INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES
A thematic approach to the history of the United States from pre-independence to the present. Major themes, developed within broad chronological units, will include: the contours of political democracy, and civic culture; the rise of an industrial, corporate, and global economy; territorial expansion and increasing involvement in world affairs; the impact of science and technology on public policy and daily life; the relationship between religion and society; and the development of a multicultural America. This course fulfills the university requirement for proficiency in American History. Partially duplicates 1115 and 1116. No credit will be allowed for duplicating courses. (3H,3C)

1014 (AAEC 1014): SURVEY OF AMERICAN ECONOMIC HISTORY
Overview of the major themes in the transformation and change of the United States economy and the economic life of its citizens from the colonial period to the present. Economic growth and change are described within contemporary social, political and cultural contexts. Broad themes include the transformation of an agrarian economy into an industrial economy, the changing nature of work, the role of government in the economy, and the performance of the economy over time. (3H,3C)

1024: ANCIENT HISTORY
History of the ancient world from the invention of writing after 10,000 BC to the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century AD. Surveys the civilizations of the Ancient Near East (including Egypt and Anatolia), Greece, and Rome. I (3H,3C)

1025,1026: INTRODUCTION TO EUROPEAN CIVILIZATION
Significant problems and processes in the history of Europe from the Middle Ages to the recent past. 1025: From Medieval society to the mid-18th century; 1026: Mid-18th-century to the recent past. Sequence is recommended in preparation for advanced courses in European history. I,II (3H,3C)

1115,1116: HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES
Stresses fundamental facts and interpretations in American history. 1115: 1607 to Civil War; 1116: Civil War to present. Sequence is recommended preparation for advanced courses in American history. Students who have taken 1004 may not take 1115 or 1116 for credit. (3H,3C)

1214: HISTORY OF THE MODERN WORLD
An examination of the global significance of critical political, social, cultural, and international issues in the twentieth century. I,II (3H,3C)

1224: INTRODUCTION TO LATIN AMERICA
The peoples of Latin America from the earliest times to the present. Historical approach to understanding ancient and contemporary cultures, their environmental impact, and their socio-political dynamics from Mexico to Tierra del Fuego over 5000 years. (3H,3C) I.

2004: HISTORICAL METHODS
Explanation of the discipline of history: its history, philosophies, and methods, with emphasis on historical research. I,II (3H,3C)

2054 (STS 2054): ENGINEERING CULTURES
Development of engineering and its cultural roles in historical and cross-national perspectives. Explores roles of engineers and engineering in popular life, development of national styles, changing values in engineering problem solving, and effects of evolving forms of capitalism. (3H,3C) I,II.

2104H: CRITICAL ISSUES IN AMERICAN HISTORY
This course allows Honors students to explore more thoroughly selected themes in the history of the United States, from its initial settlement to the present. Students must have University Honors status or permission of the instructor to take this course. (3H,3C)

2114H: CRITICAL ISSUES IN EUROPEAN HISTORY
An exploration of critical issues in modern European history, through the study of source materials and historical interpretations. University Honors standing is required. (3H,3C)

2124: CRITICAL ISSUES IN WORLD HISTORY
An examination of significant themes and important topics in world history from the fifteenth century through the present. (3H,3C)

2155,2156: HISTORY OF ENGLAND
Development of English culture, society, and institutions from the Anglo-Saxon invasions to the present. Stress on the growth of law, government, and the constitution. 2155: 450 A.D. to 1702; 2156: since 1702. I,II (3H,3C)

2165,2166: HISTORY OF FRANCE
French history from Roman Gaul to the present. 2165: Roman, Medieval, and Renaissance France; Absolute Monarchy. 2166: The Revolution; Nineteenth and Twentieth Century France. I,II (3H,3C)

2184: HISTORY OF THE BALKANS
History of Southeastern Europe from the sixth century to the present. Chief themes are movement of peoples, Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, religious conflicts, social developments, and rival nationalisms. Taught alternate years. (3H,3C) I.

2304: AFRICA IN THE MODERN WORLD
The peoples and societies of Africa. Emphasis on major themes and developments since the eighteenth century. Historical approach to understanding indigenous African cultures and their encounters with global forces. Concentration on African achievements, the response to colonialism, the rise of modern nationalism, and the problems and prospects of independent Africa. Taught alternate years. I (3H,3C)

2345,2346: HISTORY OF THE MIDDLE EAST
History of the Middle East from the seventh century to today, with emphasis on formation of Islamic civilization, medieval and early modern political systems, European imperialism, and the struggle for independence. 2345: seventh century to 1914; 2346: independence, wars, revolutions, and social change since 1914. I (3H,3C)

2355,2356: HISTORY OF CHINA
China from prehistory to the present. Special attention to political, social, economic, and cultural developments. 2355: Prehistory, Imperial China to the sixteenth century; 2356: late Imperial China to modern and contemporary China. I (3H,3C)

2364: HISTORY OF JAPAN
Political, social, economic, and cultural development of Japan from earliest times to present; emphasis on problems of modernization in the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries. II (3H,3C)

2375,2376: HISTORY OF THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT
History of the Indian subcontinent (South Asia) from ancient times to the present, with special emphasis on cultural developments. 2375: Development of traditional South Asian civilization from ancient times to 1500; 2376: Development of modern South Asian civilization since 1500. (3H,3C) 2375: I; 2376: History of the Indian subcontinent (South Asia) from ancient.

2964: FIELD STUDY
Pass/Fail only. Variable credit course.

2974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.

2984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.

2984H: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.

3004: COLONIAL AMERICA
Critical analysis of early American society. Founding and development of the colonies in the 17th century; 18th century colonial life. I (3H,3C)

3014: AMERICAN REVOLUTION
Causes, nature, and results of the American Revolution, 1763- 1789. (3H,3C) II.

3024: THE EARLY UNITED STATES
A study of social, political, and economic developments in the United States between 1790 and 1845 with special emphasis on the Industrial and Transportation Revolutions in the North and Old Northwest. Taught alternate years. II (3H,3C)

3055,3056: CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION
Causative forces leading to war, political, military, and social study of the Civil War, with emphasis on the Southern Confederacy; the levying and legacy of Reconstruction. 3055: 1820-1862; 3056: 1862-1877. I (3H,3C)

3064: EMERGENCE OF MODERN AMERICA, 1877-1917
American from end of Reconstruction to World War I: industrial and urban growth, the last frontier, worsening status for blacks, immigration and new ethnic currents, Populism and Progressivism, cultural ferment, and overseas expansion, America's entry on the world stage. Taught alternate years. I (3H,3C)

3084: RECENT AMERICA, 1917-PRESENT
Social, economic, cultural, and political history of America from the entry into World War I, the turbulent 1920's, the Great Depression, the New Deal, World War II, postwar prosperity, the Cold War, social and cultural ferment, Vietnam, Watergate, to the new anxieties about the limits of power in the 1980's. Taught alternate years. II (3H,3C)

3104: UNITED STATES SOCIAL HISTORY
Examination of the lives of ordinary people in order to understand the human experience through a focus on race, ethnicity, class, gender, and region. (3H,3C) II.

3105,3106: WOMEN IN U S HISTORY
Roles of women from colonial settlement to the present. Special attention to family experiences, political agendas, and economic contributions of women and to social construction of gender identities. 3105: to 1865; 3106: since 1865. (3H,3C) 3105: I; 3106: construction of gender identities. 3105: to 1865; 3106:.

3114: UNITED STATES BUSINESS HISTORY
Survey of U.S. business history from colonial times through the present. Formation of business institutions, specialization of commercial functions, rise of big business, and development of oligopolies, conglomerates, and multinational corporations. Taught alternate years. II (3H,3C)

3124: HISTORY OF AMERICAN AGRICULTURE
Changes in farming and the relation between farming and society, politics, and economics. Stresses development of modern agriculture in America. I (3H,3C)

3134: SPORTS IN AMERICAN HISTORY
Impact of sports in American history. Emphasis on the impact of team sports (college and professional basketball, baseball, and football) and individual sports (golf, boxing, and automobile racing) have had on the development of American society and culture. (3H,3C)

3144: AMERICAN ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY
Changing attitudes about nature and wilderness, political decisions, supervisory institutions, and environmental problems that accompanied utilization of America's natural resources. II (3H,3C)

3155,3156: HISTORY OF AMERICAN CITIES
Growth and development, form and functioning of American cities from the settlement of the country to the present. 3155: 1565 to 1870. 3156: 1870 to the present. I,II (3H,3C)

3174 (AFST 3174): AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN IN UNITED STATES HISTORY
Chronological and thematic examination of significant historical moments in black men's lives. Examination of the social, cultural, and political forces contributing to a uniquely African American male experience in the United States. Survey of events in America's collective past such as wars, depressions, and protest movements. (3H,3C)

3175,3176 (AFST 3175, 3176): AFRO-AMERICAN HISTORY
The Afro-American experience in the United States from 1619 to the present. Emphasis upon slavery and the strategies of economic and social survival in the twentieth century. 3175: 1619-1877. 3176: 1877-present. I (3H,3C)

3184: HISTORY OF UNITED STATES FOREIGN RELATIONS
American foreign relations with emphasis on the twentieth century and American globalism, domestic influences on foreign policy and interrelationships between foreign and domestic events and ideas. I (3H,3C)

3205,3206: U.S. SOUTH
The southern experience from Old to New South with emphases upon racial accommodation, social hierarchy, cultural identity, political struggle, and intellectual change. 3205: to 1900; 3206: since 1900. 3205: I, 3206: II (3H,3C)

3214: HISTORY OF APPALACHIA
Early settlement, religion, the pre-industrial economy, the coming of the coal and lumber industries, labor activism, politics, migration, and regional identity. I (3H,3C)

3224: HISTORY OF VIRGINIA
Social, political, cultural, and economic developments in Virginia, from the sixteenth century to the present. II (3H,3C)

3234: THE NORTH AMERICAN WEST
A study of the peoples and history of the North American West from the sixteenth century through the twentieth. Taught alternate years. I (3H,3C)

3254: THE VIETNAM WAR
A critical study of the causes and consequences of the Vietnam War, 1945-1975. Analysis of America's strategic and military objectives, the nature and conduct of the war, and the growth of the antiwar movement at home. II (3H,3C)

3264: THE UNITED STATES IN LATIN AMERICA
U.S. political and economic relations with the Latin American republics. Analysis and discussion of the history of formal and informal U.S. diplomacy, military intervention, and economic interests in Latin America during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Taught alternate years. II (3H,3C)

3274: THE GREEK CITY
History of the ancient Greek city-state (polis) from the Archaic period (800-500 BC) to the creation of the Roman Empire. Principal topics are: origins and definition of the polis; Greek colonization throughout the Mediterranean and Black Seas; the struggle for autonomy in the Classical and Hellenistic periods; and the Hellenizing impact of the polis on non-Greek populations. Taught alternate years. II (3H,3C)

3284: THE ROMAN REVOLUTION
History of the Roman world from 264 B.C. to A.D. 180. Particular attention to the three themes of imperialism, revolution, and empire through extensive reading of the contemporary authors. Taught alternate years. II (3H,3C)

3304: THE WORLD OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT
The life and times of Alexander the Great, 431 to 323 B.C., and the new cosmopolitan world initiated by his conquests, 323 to 30 B.C. Taught alternate years. (3H,3C) II.

3314: THE LATER ROMAN EMPIRE
Roman Empire in the west from A.D. 180 to A.D. 476 and in the east from A.D. 476 to A.D. 1071. Particular attention to the causes of the fall of the empire in the west and to the Byzantine Empire in the east until the coming of the Turks and the Christian Crusaders. Taught alternate years. II (3H,3C)

3324: THE MEDIEVAL WORLD
Characteristic thought and institutions of high and late Middle Ages. I (3H,3C)

3334: THE RENAISSANCE
The Italian Renaissance in its European context. Emphasis upon the culture and institutions of Italian states from 1300 to 1500. (3H,3C) II.

3344: THE ERA OF THE REFORMATION
Development of Protestantism and reformation of the Catholic Church from 1500 to about 1600. Emphasis upon social, political, and economic factors as well as theology. Examination of conflicts engendered by the reformation movements. Taught alternate years. (3H,3C) I.

3364: THE AGE OF REVOLUTION AND NAPOLEON
The French Revolution in its European and global context, with particular attention to social and political causes of unrest, strategies of popular mobilization, debates about authority and order, the emergence of empires, and the long-term implications of revolutionary change. (3H,3C)

3384: EUROPE AND WORLD WAR I
European politics and society before and after World War I. Emphasis on industrialism, imperialism, and the conflicts which they engendered; total war and its aftermath; economic dislocation; strains upon democracy; Fascism, Communism, and the totalitarian state. Taught alternate years. (3H,3C) I.

3394: EUROPE SINCE WORLD WAR II
Europe's political and economic recovery since 1945; development of the "Cold War"; Soviet Union and Eastern Europe before and after Stalin; Western European integration and development of a consumer society; Ostpolitik and Detente; decolonization and neo-colonialism; Europe's position in the world economy, dependence on imported materials and energy; the Revolutions of 1989 and post-Marxist Eastern Europe. Taught alternate years. II (3H,3C)

3424: TUDOR AND EARLY STUART ENGLAND, 1509-1660
Causes and consequences of the English Reformation and subsequent Civil War. Decline of royal power and increasing importance of Parliament. Cultural and intellectual developments of the Elizabethan period. I (3H,3C)

3434: LATE STUART AND EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY ENGLAND
Causes and consequences of the Glorious Revolution, the early Industrial Revolution, and the War of the American Revolution. Establishment of cabinet government and office of Prime Minister. Cultural and artistic developments of the period. II (3H,3C)

3484: TWENTIETH-CENTURY GERMANY
Political, social, economic, and cultural history of twentieth-century Germany. Taught alternate years. II (3H,3C)

3494 (JUD 3494): THE HOLOCAUST
This course provides a historical account, a psychological analysis and an occasion for philosophical contemplation on the Holocaust. We will examine the deliberate and systematic attempt to annihilate the Jewish people by the National Socialist German State during World War II. Although Jews were the primary victims, Gypsies, the handicapped, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses and political dissidents were targeted, we will discuss their faith as well. The class will be organized around the examination of primary sources: written accounts, photographic and film, and personal testimony. II Alternate years. (3H,3C)

3505,3506: EUROPEAN DIPLOMATIC HISTORY
Diplomacy and war among European powers. 3505: Development of the European States System, 1589-1848; 3506: Diplomacy of nation states, 1848-present. Taught alternate years. I,II (3H,3C)

3514: THE AGE OF EXPLORATION AND CONQUEST
Technological, political, and economic factors that brought about the European exploration of the world from 1450-1770 and the conquest of much of it. The impact of those events on both Europe and the world. Taught alternate years. II (3H,3C)

3524: EUROPEAN MILITARY HISTORY TO 1789
Analysis of change in warfare from the ancient Greeks to the French Revolution. Emphasis on the social and technological causes of military change. I (3H,3C)

3534: MODERN MILITARY HISTORY
Evolution of warfare in its political and social setting since the French Revolution. Discussion of both European and American military institutions. II (3H,3C)

3544: WORLD WAR II
Causes, course, and results of World War II. Emphasis upon diplomacy and the social impact of total war as well as military events. Coverage will stress the world-wide nature of the war. II (3H,3C)

3554: AGE OF GLOBALIZATION
An examination of historical forces in the late twentieth century, including economic trends, ideological forces, social structures, and political relations, that have shaped patterns of globalization. (3H,3C)

3565,3566: HISTORY OF THE CHURCH
The Christian Church from the earliest times to the present. 3565: The early and medieval periods. 3566: The modern period. Taught alternate years. I,II (3H,3C)

3574: WOMEN IN EUROPEAN HISTORY
Women's historical experience and social roles, attitudes toward women, and the development of feminist thought and activity in Europe since 1500. Taught alternate years. I (3H,3C)

3584: COLONIAL LATIN AMERICA
Major themes and issues in Colonial Latin American History. Discussion of the Spanish and Portuguese empires in the western hemisphere, emphasizing indigenous responses to
colonization, the privatization of land and labor, the Church and village as financial and cultural institutions, imperial policies and reforms, and the collapse of empire after 300 years. I (3H,3C)

3594: THE RISE OF MODERN LATIN AMERICA
Major themes and issues in Modern Latin American History. Discussion of the rise of Latin American nations, stressing the internal and external challenges new republics confronted during the nineteenth century and the opportunities and conflicts of the twentieth century. II (3H,3C)

3604: RUSSIA TO PETER THE GREAT
Russian history from the founding of Russia in the ninth century to the reign of Peter the Great in the early eighteenth century, with special attention to political developments, changes in society and culture and regional context. (3H,3C)

3614: IMPERIAL RUSSIA
Russian history from Peter the Great to the Revolution of 1917, with special attention to political developments, changes in society and culture, and the impact of the regional context. (3H,3C)

3644: TWENTIETH-CENTURY RUSSIA
The history of the Soviet Union from 1917 to the present, with particular emphasis on collectivization, industrialization, ideology, international relations, and other factors that have determined the peculiar character of the Soviet state. Taught alternate years. (3H,3C) I.

3654: THE ARAB-ISRAELI DISPUTE
Historical origins and development of the struggle for Palestine. Emphasis on post-WW II including conflicting nationalisms, wars, history of Israel, and Great Power diplomacy. II (3H,3C)

3664: REVOLUTIONARY CHINA
(3H,3C) Ideological and institutional development of the Chinese.

3684 (HUM 3684): CULTURAL HISTORY OF THE SOVIET UNION AND THE SUCCESSOR STATES
History and main characteristics of cultural life and the arts in the former Soviet Union, with emphasis on film, music, literature, and the relationship between elite and popular culture. Taught alternate years. II (3H,3C)

3694: HISTORY THROUGH FILM
This course introduces students to critical issues in history and representation, utilizing film to analyze central historical issues. The specific thematic content is variable. Course may be repeated for up to 9 credits. (3H,3C)

3705,3706 (STS 3705, 3706): HISTORY OF SCIENCE
Conceptual and institutional development of physical and biological sciences viewed within a cultural and societal context. 3705: Early Science; 3706: Modern Science. I,II (3H,3C)

3715,3716 (STS 3715, 3716): HISTORY OF TECHNOLOGY
Description of the development of technology and engineering in their social contexts. 3715: From prehistory to the industrial revolution in Europe and the United States, mid-19th century. 3716: From mid-19th century to the present. (3H,3C) 3715: I; 3716: United States, mid-19th century. 3716: From mid-19th.

3724: HISTORY OF DISEASE, MEDICINE, AND HEALTH
Development of Western concepts of disease, medicine, and health with emphasis on period from eighteenth century to present. Social construction of disease and relationship between health and social, economic, and political structures. Special attention to impact of public health and the development of scientific and technological medicine. I (3H,3C)

3734 (STS 3734): HISTORY OF MODERN BIOLOGY
This course explores the development of biology from the Enlightenment to the end of the twentieth century, with a particular emphasis on biology's impact on society. (3H,3C)

3744: SOCIAL HISTORY OF FILM
This course introduces students to critical issues in the social history of film, examining the production and consumption of film in specific historical moments as well as the effects of film on society, culture, and politics. The specific thematic content is variable. May be repeated with different content for a maximum of 9 credits. (3H,3C)

4004: TOPICS IN SOCIAL AND CULTURAL HISTORY
Selected topics in social and cultural history. May be repeated with different content. 3 other hours of history and junior standing required. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)

4014: TOPICS IN WAR, REVOLUTION AND DIPLOMACY
Selected topics in the roles of war, revolution, and diplomacy in human history. May be repeated with different content. 3 other hours of history and junior standing required. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)

4024: TOPICS IN COLONIALISM AND IMPERIALISM
Selected topics in colonialism, imperialism, and de-colonization. May be repeated with different content. 3 other hours of history and junior standing required. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)

4034: TOPICS IN ECONOMIC AND BUSINESS HISTORY
Selected topics in economic and business history. May be repeated with different content. 3 other hours of history and junior standing required. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)

4044: TOPICS IN WOMEN'S HISTORY
Pre: 2004. (3H,3C) Intensive study of selected topics in women's history. May.

4054: TOPICS IN POLITICAL HISTORY
Selected topics in the role of politics in history. May be repeated with different content. 3 other hours of history and junior standing required. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)

4064: TOPICS IN RACE AND ETHNIC HISTORY
Selected topics in the role of race and ethnicity in human history. May be repeated with different content. 3 other hours of history and junior standing required. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)

4074 (REL 4074): TOPICS IN RELIGIOUS AND INTELLECTUAL HISTORY
Selected topics in the role of religion and intellectual systems in human history. May be repeated with different content. 3 other hours of history and junior standing or above required. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)

4214: TOPICS IN THE HISTORY OF SCIENCE, MEDICINE AND TECHNOLOGY
Selected topics in the history of science, medicine and technology. May be repeated with different content. 3 other hours of history and junior standing required. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)

4224: TOPICS IN LEGAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY
Selected topics in legal and constitutional history. May be repeated with different content. 3 other hours of history and junior standing required. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)

4234: TOPICS IN AFRICAN-AMERICAN HISTORY
Selected topics in African-American history. May be repeated with different content. 3 other hours of history and junior standing required. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)

4244: TOPICS IN ENVIRONMENTAL HISTORY
Selected topics in environmental history. May be repeated with different content. 3 other hours of history and junior standing required. Pre: 2004. (3H,3C)

4964: FIELD STUDY
Pass/Fail only. Variable credit course.

4974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.

4984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course. X-grade allowed.

4994: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
Variable credit course.

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Virginia Tech 2007-08 Undergraduate Course Catalog and Academic Policies