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2007-2008 Undergraduate Course Catalog & Academic Policies

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Liberal Arts and Human Sciences

English

www.english.vt.edu

English Dept. 2003Carolyn Rude, Chair
Nancy Metz, Associate Chair
Cheryl Ruggiero, Assistant Chair

University Distinguished Professor: N. Giovanni
Alumni Distinguished Professor: L. H. Roy
NationsBank Clifford A. Cutchins III Professor: Thomas M. Gardner
Edward S. Diggs Professor: E. Sullivan
Professors: L. M. Anderson; F. D'Aguiar; J. Eska; E. Falco; V. Fowler;
D. George; P. W. Graham; B. Hausman; C. Kiebuzinska; D. W. Mosser;
F. Oehlschlaeger; D. H. Radcliffe; C. Rude; R. W. Siegle; P. Sorrentino;
J. D. Stahl
Associate Professors: . Belanger; A. J. Colaianne; J. H. Collier;
C. Dannenberg; J. Dubinsky; S. Fowler; P. Heilker; R. Hicok; S. M. Knapp; J. Mann; N. A. Metz; K. M. Powell; K. Swenson; D. M. Welch
Assistant Professors: E. R. Brumberger; S. Carter-Tod; G. Chandler; C. Evia; E. Meitner; K. E. Pender; S. Salaita
Instructors: R. Allnutt; M. Armstrong; C. Bean; M. Bliss; E. Bloomer; R. Canter; Z. K. Combiths; K. Fallon; S. Frost; K. Graham; S. Hagedorn; D. Hall; J. Harvill; S. Kark; A. F. Kinder; S. J. Kotz; J. Lawrence; V. LeCorre; L. Leslie; A. LoMascolo; S. Martin;
J. Mengert; J. Mooney; S. Mooney; M. D. Moore; A. Murphy; L. Neilan; S. Oakey; H. R. Patton; R. M. Piersol; S. Reisinger;
C. Ruggiero; S. Saffle; L. Skinner; M. S. Smith; H. B. Stevens; T. Trent; J. M. Vollmer; G. Voros; E. Weathers; J. Wemhoener
Visiting Assistant Professor: C. Eska
Career Advisor: L. Skinner (231-6175)


Overview

    The curriculum in English offers excellent preparation for students who seek careers in business, government, and non-profit organizations, who are preparing for graduate or professional schools, who plan to teach, and who are seeking careers that involve writing.

The English Major

    The major in English is composed of an in-major core of 15 hours and a number of upper-division options ranging from 30 to 36 hours (including 12 hours of English electives).

The In-Major Core:
All English majors must take 15 hours distributed as follows.
1. 3 hours: Introduction to Critical Reading (2604). This is the gateway course to the major and should be taken immediately after satisfaction of the first-year writing requirement
2. 6 hours: Survey of British Literature (2515, 2516).
3. 3 hours: Survey of American Literature (2525 or 2526).
4. 3 hours: Shakespeare (4165 or 4166).

Upper-Division Options

    In order to enroll in an upper-division option, a student must:

    1. Pass 2604 with a minimum grade of C.
    2. Complete 12 of the 15 hours in the in-major core with a GPA of 2.0 for the Literature and Cultural Studies tracks of the Literature, Language, & Culture Option, the Professional Writing Option, and the Creative Writing Option; or complete 12 of the 15 hours in the in-major core with a GPA of 3.0 for the Pre-Education and Pre-Law tracks of the Literature, Language, & Culture option.

Literature, Language, & Culture Option

    The Literature, Language, & Culture (LLC) Option of the major is aimed at those students who are interested in the study of literature and its many contexts and who want to pursue careers in such areas as the law, business, government, publishing, advertising, social services, and education. There are four different tracks in the LLC Option: the Literature Track, the Cultural Studies Track, the Pre-Education Track, and the Pre-Law Track. We have known for centuries that the study of literature, language, and culture is matchless in preparing you for a lifetime of reading, analysis, self-discovery, and self-expression. Each of our four choices grounds you in the sophisticated thought and analysis of literary studies, then focuses you upon a track that will take you more deeply into literary studies, more broadly into cultural studies, or into the specific preparations that you will need for careers in education or law. In addition to the in-major core requirements (15 hours), each track has its own unique emphasis and requirements.

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The Literature Track

    This choice allows you the maximum of time devoted to the various periods, genres, themes, major figures, and practices distinctive to region, ethnicity, or gender; you will not only finish your degree with a rich sense of the best that has been thought and said, but you will also find yourself skilled in the art of analyzing any text or body of data before you and presenting your analysis persuasively and insightfully.

    The B.A. in English, LLC Option/Literature Track, requires 45 hours. The 30 hours in English beyond the in-major core are distributed as follows:

    1. 3 hours: A backgrounds course chosen from the following: Ancient Greek & Roman Mythology (2444); Fundamentals of Literary Criticism (3354); The Bible As Literature (3584); Hebrew Bible/Old Testament (REL 2414); New Testament (REL 2424).
    2. 3 hours: A period course chosen from the following: Medieval Literature (3204); Renaissance Literature (3214); Augustan Literature (3224); Romantic Literature (3234); Victorian Literature (3244); American Literature before 1900 (3254); Modernist British Literature (3264); Modernist American Literature (3274).
    3. 3 hours: An author course chosen from the following: Chaucer (4114); Shakespeare I (4165); Shakespeare II (4166); Milton (4214); British Author after 1800 (4624); American Author before 1900 (4634); American Author after 1900 (4644). The Shakespeare course taken for the in-major core cannot also satisfy the author requirement.
    4. 3 hours: A course in narrative chosen from the following: English Novel I (4405); English Novel II (4406); American Narrative to 1950, I (4415); American Narrative to 1950, II (4416); Contemporary Fiction (4664).
    5. 3 hours: A course in non-traditional literature chosen from the following: Topics in Literature by Women (3364); Literature for Children (3524); African-American Literature (3634); Postcolonial Cultural Studies (3644).
    6. 3 hours: Senior Seminar (4784). The capstone course for the LLC Option/Literature Track
      12 hours: Four English elective courses; at least six hours must be at the 4000-level, and no more than three hours can be below the 3000-level.
    7. In addition to these specific course requirements, LLC/Literature majors must take three hours of pre-1800 literature beyond the in-major core from among the following: Medieval Literature (3204); Renaissance Literature (3214); Augustan Literature (3224); Chaucer (4114); Introduction to Old English (4124); Shakespeare I (4165); Shakespeare II (4166); Milton (4214); and appropriate sections of American Literature Before 1900 (3254).

    For the most up-to-date information, please consult the LLC web pages (http://www.english.vt.edu/llc/index.htm).

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The Cultural Studies Track

    This choice prompts you to correlate what you have learned about literary analysis with what you find when you pay that kind of close attention to the full range of cultural artifacts and practices all around us; you will finish your degree with an acute sense of how culture and society work through the various forms by which we shape our lives and identities, not to mention a well-honed skill in persuading others of your insights.

    The B.A. in English, LLC Option/Cultural Studies Track, requires 45 hours. The 30 hours in English beyond the in-major core are distributed as follows:

  1. 3 hours: Fundamentals of Literary Criticism (3354).
  2. 3 hours: A course in literature and society chosen from the following: Topics in Literature by Women (3364); Literature and Ecology (3534); Appalachian Literature (3624); African-American Literature (3634); Language and Society (4044).
  3. 3 hours: A course in modes of representation chosen from the following: Literature and Film (3544); Topics in Speculative Fiction (4414); Modern Poetry (4504); Contemporary Poetry (4514); Modern Drama (4564); Contemporary Fiction (4664).
  4. 3 hours: A course in cultural studies chosen from the following: Postcolonial Cultural Studies (3644); Studies in Contemporary Culture (4674).
  5. 3 hours: Literary Criticism (4024).
  6. 3 hours: Senior Seminar (4784). The capstone course for the LLC Option/Cultural Studies Track.
  7. 12 hours: Four English elective courses; at least six hours must be at the 4000 level, and no more than three hours can be below the 3000 level.

    For the most up-to-date information, please consult the LLC web pages (http://www.english.vt.edu/llc/index.htm).

The Pre-Education Track

    This track will provide you with a thorough grounding in canonical American and British literature and hone your skills in literary analysis, but it will also ensure that you become conversant with content areas required by our state licensing board: literature written by minorities and women, linguistics, and sociolinguistics. Pursuit of this track is the best possible way to prepare yourself for the graduate work leading to certification.

    The B.A. in English, LLC Option/Pre-Education Track, requires 48 hours. The 33 hours in English beyond the in-major core are distributed as follows:

  1. 3 hours: A 3000–4000-level course in women's literature chosen from among the following: Topics in Literature by Women (3364); an appropriate section of British Author after 1800 (4624); an appropriate section of American Author before 1900 (4634); an appropriate section of American Author after 1900 (4644); an appropriate section of Senior Seminar (4784).
  2. 3 hours: A 3000-4000 level course in literature by a minority chosen from among the following: African-American Literature (3634); an appropriate section of British Author after 1800 (4624); an appropriate section of American Author before 1900 (4634); an appropriate section of American Author after 1900 (4644); an appropriate section of Senior Seminar (4784).>
  3. 3 hours: A 30004000-level writing course chosen from among the following: Professional Writing (3104); Advanced Composition (3754); Technical Writing (3764); Business Writing (3774); Science Writing (4824).
  4. 3 hours: A period or author course chosen from among the following: Medieval Literature (3204); Renaissance Literature (3214); Augustan Literature (3224); Romantic Literature (3234); Victorian Literature (3244); American Literature before 1900 (3254); Modernist British Literature (3264); Modernist American Literature (3274); Chaucer (4114); Shakespeare I (4165); Shakespeare II (4166); Milton (4214); British Author after 1800 (4624); American Author before 1900 (4634); American Author after 1900 (4644). The Shakespeare course taken for the in-major core cannot also satisfy this requirement.
  5. 3 hours: Modern English Linguistics (4064).
  6. 3 hours: Language and Society (4044).
  7. 3 hours: Senior Seminar (4874). The capstone course for the LLC Option/Pre-Education Track.
  8. 12 hours: Four English elective courses (12 hours); at least six hours must be at the 4000 level, and no more than three hours can be below the 3000 level.

    In addition to these specific course requirements, LLC/Pre-Education majors who plan careers in elementary or middle school education should consider using their electives to take the following courses: Introduction to World Literature (1644); Literature for Children (3524); and either History of the English Language (4054) or English Syntax (4074).

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The Pre-Law Track

    This choice is the ideal preparation for the demands that you will face as a student and practitioner in the field of law; you will finish your degree with significant advantages as readers and analysts of the law archives that you must master in your graduate training, and also as a master of the art of presentation in the briefs and oral presentations that constitute the bulk of your legal career.

    The B.A. in English, LLC Option/Pre-Law Track, requires 48 hours in English plus 15 hours in application areas. The 33 hours in English beyond the in-major core and 15 hours in application areas are distributed as follows:

  1. 3 hours: A period course chosen from the following: Medieval Literature (3204); Renaissance Literature (3214); Augustan Literature (3224); Romantic Literature (3234); Victorian Literature (3244); American Literature before 1900 (3254); Modernist British Literature (3264); Modernist American Literature (3274).
  2. 3 hours: Literature and the Law (3684).
  3. 3 hours: A 3000–4000 level writing course chosen from among the following: Professional Writing (3104); Advanced Composition (3754); Technical Writing (3764); Business Writing (3774); Science Writing (4824).
  4. 3 hours: An author course chosen from the following: Chaucer (4114); Shakespeare I (4165); Shakespeare II (4166); Milton (4214); British Author after 1800 (4624); American Author before 1900 (4634); American Author after 1900 (4644). The Shakespeare course taken for the in-major core cannot also satisfy the author requirement.
  5. 3 hours: A course in narrative chosen from the following: English Novel I (4405); English Novel II (4406); American Narrative to 1950, I (4415); American Narrative to 1950, II (4416); Contemporary Fiction (4664).
  6. 3 hours: A course in non-traditional literature chosen from the following: Topics in Literature by Women (3364); Literature for Children (3524); African-American Literature (3634); Postcolonial Cultural Studies (3644).
  7. 3 hours: Issues in Professional and Public Discourse (4874). The capstone course for the LLC Option/Pre-Law Track.
  8. 12 hours: Four English elective courses; at least six hours must be at the 4000 level, and no more than three hours can be below the 3000 level.
  9. 15 hours: Five application area courses distributed across at least four of the following five areas:
Business/Economics: ACIS 2004, 2115, 2116; ECON 2005, 2006, 4014, 4214, 4894; FIN 3055, 3104, 4014
History: 1004, 1115, 1116, 2104H, 2155, 2156, 3014, 3024, 3084, 3105, 3106, 3114, 3175, 3176, 3184
Philosophy: 1304, 2304, 3314, 4304, 4324, 4334
Sociology: 3414, 3424, 4404
Political Science: 1014, 1024, 3334, 3345, 3346.

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Post-Graduate Study

    Undergraduate majors interested in pursuing advanced degrees (M.A. or Ph.D.) in English should, with the assistance of their professors and academic advisors, carefully plan their programs of study. It is generally a good idea to take a variety of courses and to fulfill requirements and electives with as many 3000- and 4000-level courses as possible. It is strongly recommended that students planning to undertake post-graduate study acquire a good reading knowledge of a modern and/or a classical foreign language. Getting to know professors and learning as much as possible about the professional elements of the discipline provide excellent preparation for graduate work. For specific advice and information about applying to graduate school, please consult the LLC web pages.

Professional Writing Option

    The Professional Writing (PW) Option of the major is aimed at those students who want to make writing a career. Students combine coursework on the methods, forms, and issues of workplace writing with practical experience, usually in the form of client or service-learning projects with non-profit organizations. As a result, students begin their careers with the writing skills needed to succeed in today's competitive market, an understanding of professional expectations, experience with current software packages, and a portfolio of real-world writing samples.

    The B.A. in English, PW Option, requires 45 hours. The 30 hours in English beyond the in-major core are distributed as follows:

  1. 3 hours: Professional Writing (3104).
  2. 3 hours: Technical Editing and Style (3804).
  3. 3 hours: A course in linguistics chosen from the following: Language and Society (4044); English Syntax (4074).
  4. 3 hours: A 3000-level Professional Writing elective chosen from the following: Creating User Documentation (3814); Designing Documents for Print (3824).
  5. 3 hours: A 4000-level Professional Writing elective chosen from the following: Grant Proposal and Report Writing (4804); Writing for the Web (4814); Science Writing (4824).
  6. 3 hours: Issues in Professional and Public Discourse (4874). The capstone course for the PW Option.
  7. 12 hours: Four English elective courses; at least six hours must be at the 4000 level, and no more than three hours can be below the 3000 level.
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Creative Writing Option

    The Creative Writing (PW) Option of the major is aimed at those students who want to pursue a career as a writer of poetry, fiction, creative non-fiction, or drama. Admission to a Master of Fine Arts (M.F.A.) program is typically based upon writing samples, recommendations, academic history, and -- increasingly -- publications; therefore, students interested in pursuing the MFA should concentrate upon developing an excellent portfolio of poetry, fiction, creative non-fiction, and/or drama. Students interested in M.A. or Ph.D. programs in creative writing, as well as those who plan to enter the fields of publishing and/or editing should also follow these guidelines. In addition to courses in creative writing, students are well advised to take a range of courses in literature, particularly those in their primary genre(s), in order to familiarize themselves with major writers and literary traditions.

    The B.A. in English, CW Option, requires 45 hours. The 30 hours in English beyond the in-major core are distributed as follows:

    1. 3 hours: A backgrounds course chosen from the following: Ancient Greek & Roman Mythology (2444); The Bible As Literature (3584); Hebrew Bible/Old Testament (REL 2414); New Testament (REL 2424).
    2. 3 hours: Creative Writing: Fiction (3704).
    3. 3 hours: Creative Writing: Poetry (3714).
    4. 3 hours: A 3000-4000 level Creative Writing elective chosen from the following: Playwriting I (3315); Playwriting II (3316); Creative Writing: Creative Non-Fiction (3724); Digital Literary Culture (4424); Creative Writing: Fiction for Young People (4724).
    5. 3 hours: A course in modern or contemporary literature chosen from the following: Modern Poetry (4504); Contemporary Poetry (4514); Modern Drama (4564); Contemporary Fiction (4664).
    6. 3 hours: An advanced workshop in the students primary genre chosen from the following: Creative Writing: Advanced Fiction (4704); Creative Writing: Advanced Poetry (4714). The capstone course for the CW Option.
    7. 12 hours: Four English elective courses; at least six hours must be at the 4000 level, and no more than three hours can be below the 3000 level.

Minors in English

    The department offers four minors in English, each with its own set of courses. Students who complete one of these minors may ask the department to certify completion by means of a letter for their placement file. Students who want further information or advice about minoring in English should consult the Co-ordinator of Undergraduate Advising in Shanks Hall 329.

Minor in Literature

    The Minor in Literature requires 21 hours distributed as follows:

  1. 3 hours: Introduction to Critical Reading (2604).
  2. 3 hours: A period course chosen from the following: Medieval Literature (3204); Renaissance Literature (3214); Augustan Literature (3224); Romantic Literature (3234); Victorian Literature (3244); American Literature before 1900 (3254); Modernist British Literature (3264); Modernist American Literature (3274).
  3. 3 hours: An author course chosen from the following: Chaucer (4114); Shakespeare I (4165); Shakespeare II (4166); Milton (4214); British Author after 1800 (4624); American Author before 1900 (4634); American Author after 1900 (4644).
  4. 12 hours: Four English elective courses; no more than three hours can be below the 2000 level.
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Minor in Cultural Studies

    The Minor in Cultural Studies requires 21 hours distributed as follows:

  1. 3 hours: Introduction to Critical Reading (2604).
  2. 3 hours: Fundamentals of Literary Criticism (3354).
  3. 3 hours: A course in literature and society chosen from the following: Topics in Literature by Women (3364); Literature and Ecology (3534); Appalachian Literature (3624); African-American Literature (3634); Language and Society (4044).
  4. 3 hours: A course in modes of representation chosen from the following: Literature and Film (3544); Topics in Speculative Fiction (4414); Modern Poetry (4504); Contemporary Poetry (4514); Modern Drama (4564); Contemporary Fiction (4664).
  5. 3 hours: A course in cultural studies chosen from the following: Postcolonial Cultural Studies (3644); Digital Literary Culture (4424); Studies in Contemporary Culture (4674).
  6. 6 hours: Two English elective courses; no more than three hours can be below the 2000-level.

Minor in Professional Writing

    The Minor in Professional Writing requires 18 hours distributed as follows:

  1. 3 hours: Professional Writing (3104).
  2. 3 hours: Technical Editing and Style (3804).
  3. 3 hours: A course in linguistics chosen from the following: Language and Society (4044); English Syntax (4074).
  4. 9 hours: Three Professional Writing electives chosen from the following: Technical Writing (3764); Business Writing (3774); Creating User Documentation (3814); Designing Documents for Print (3824); Grant Proposal and Report Writing (4804); Writing for the Web (4814); Science Writing (4824); Issues in Professional and Public Discourse (4874). At least three hours must be taken at the 4000 level; students may take either 3764 or 3774 for credit, but not both.

Minor in Creative Writing

    The Minor in Creative Writing requires 21 hours distributed as follows:

  1. 3 hours: Introduction to Critical Reading (2604).
  2. 3 hours: Introduction to Creative Writing (2744).
  3. 3 hours: A period course chosen from the following: Medieval Literature (3204); Renaissance Literature (3214); Augustan Literature (3224); Romantic Literature (3234); Victorian Literature (3244); American Literature before 1900 (3254); Modernist British Literature (3264); Modernist American Literature (3274).
  4. 3 hours: An author course chosen from the following: Chaucer (4114); Shakespeare I (4165); Shakespeare II (4166); Milton (4214); British Author after 1800 (4624); American Author before 1900 (4634); American Author after 1900 (4644).
  5. 9 hours: Three Creative Writing electives chosen from the following: Playwriting I (3315); Playwriting II (3316); Creative Writing: Fiction (3704); Creative Writing: Poetry (3714); Creative Writing: Creative Non-Fiction (3724); Creative Writing: Advanced Fiction (4704); Creative Writing: Advanced Poetry (4714); Creative Writing: Fiction for Young People (4724).

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Freshman English

    The Curriculum for Liberal Education in Area I requires a two-semester freshman sequence. ENGL 1105-1106, which the English Department offers as part of its Writing Program, fulfills this Area I Liberal Education requirement.

    Advanced Standing (AS): Some students are exempted from the first semester (ENGL 1105) and granted Advanced Standing on the basis of three scores: SAT I Verbal, SAT II Writing, and Standardized High School Class Rank. Advanced Standing students fulfill their Freshman English requirement with the single advanced course into which they are placed: ENGL 1106 or Honors ENGL H1204. If Advanced Standing students complete the assigned advanced course at Virginia Tech with a C- or better in the first enrollment, they receive pass/fail credit for ENGL 1105, the course from which they are exempted. Advanced Standing is a placement category for students at Virginia Tech; it is not related to the Advanced Placement (AP) courses offered in high schools or the AP exam offered by the Educational Testing Service (ETS).

    Credit from AP, CLEP, and IB exams can fulfill the Freshman sequence requirement. See "Advanced Placement," "Advanced Standing," and "International Baccalaureate" information in the Admissions section of this catalog.

Satisfactory Progress

    University policy requires that students who are making satisfactory progress toward a degree meet minimum criteria toward the Curriculum for Liberal Education (see Academics chapter in this catalog), toward the Liberal Arts and Human Sciences College Core (see first part of this chapter), and toward the degree in English.

    Satisfactory progress toward the B.A. in English requires that:

    1. Upon having attempted 72 semester credits (including transfer, advanced placement, advanced standing, credit by examination, and freshman rule), students must have passed 12 of the required 45-51 credits in English.
    2. Upon having attempted 96 semester credits, students must have an in-major grade point average of 2.0 or above.
    3. During their senior year, students must submit an outcomes-assessment writing sample. See the Director of Undergraduate Studies in 329 Shanks for details.

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Undergraduate Courses (ENGL)

0014: ENGLISH AS A SECOND LANGUAGE II
For international students taking regular academic loads. Practice in preparing and delivering oral reports in an academic field, as well as advanced pronunciation and aural comprehension exercises for effective classroom communication. Pass/Fail only. X-grade allowed. (3H,1C) I,II.

1105-1106: FRESHMAN ENGLISH
1105: Critical literacy: Introduction to analytical, critical, and interpretive writing and reading of primarily essay-length work; research; intensive practice in writing and revision; fundamentals of oral presentations. 1106: The Writing Project: Continued study in analytical, critical, and interpretive writing; reading of multiple book-length texts; intensive instruction and practice in writing and revision of longer work, including research; experience in oral presentation. (3H,3C)

1204H: HONORS FRESHMAN ENGLISH
Introduction to analytical, critical, and interpretive writing and reading at an advanced level and accelerated pace for students whose test scores and high school work indicate readiness for the Honors level of complexity, responsibility, and initiative; in a single semester, reviews the work of 1105 and focuses on the work of 1106 at the Honors level. Placement by the English Department required. (3H,3C)

1604: INTRODUCTION TO POETRY
This course examines the genre of poetry from the Old English period up to contemporary writers. Emphasis is on close reading and poetic forms and conventions. (3H,3C)

1614: INTRODUCTION TO SHORT FICTION
This course introduces the knowledge and skills required to read and understand short stories and novellas. Readings trace the development of short fiction from the fable and myth to contemporary narrative forms. (3H,3C)

1624: INTRODUCTION TO DETECTIVE FICTION
This course introduces students to classic and modern texts of detective fiction from a variety of historical periods and cultural traditions. (3H,3C)

1634: INTRODUCTION TO SHAKESPEARE
This course introduces Shakespeare's drama and poetry, including at least one modern adaptation of a Shakespearean play (play, novel, movie, opera, etc.). Emphasis will be placed on how to read a play, how to read Shakespearean verse, and how the various genres of Shakespearean drama differ. (3H,3C)

1644: INTRODUCTION TO WORLD LITERATURE
This course examines masterpieces of world literature in translation. Readings will focus upon one or two common themes across places and times. (3H,3C)

1654: INTRODUCTION TO SCIENCE FICTION AND FANTASY
This course introduces a variety of speculative works within the genres of science fiction and fantasy. Attention will be given to the development and principal characteristics of each genre. Emphasis will be placed on the social, cultural, and historical contexts in which specific speculative texts have been produced. (3H,3C)

1664: INTRODUCTION TO WOMEN'S LITERATURE
This introductory course will examine literary and cultural questions raised by women writers throughout history and from different cultural backgrounds. Emphasis will be on women's writing in English, but the course may include some literature in translation. (3H,3C)

1674: INTRODUCTION TO AFRICAN AMERICAN LITERATURE
This course introduces students to some of the major writers of the African American literary tradition from such early poets as Phillis Wheatley to such contemporary novelists as Toni Morrison. The course will situate the literary works within their historical and cultural contexts, but will also emphasize close readings of the texts. (3H,3C)

1684: INTRODUCTION TO DRAMA
This course examines the history, structures, and dynamics of dramatic literature and theatre practice. Classic and contemporary texts from around the world will be read with emphasis on the traditions and influences that have shaped dramatic form. (3H,3C)

1EWL: WAITING LIST FOR ENGLISH 1105
(3H,3C)

1HWLH: WAIT LIST HONORS ENGLISH 1204
(3H,3C)

2444 (CLA 2444) (HUM 2444): ANCIENT GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY
Survey of Ancient Greek and Roman mythology and modern interpretations. In English. No knowledge of Ancient Greek or Latin required. Not for credit toward a Latin Minor. (3H,3C)

2454 (CLA 2454) (HUM 2454): ANCIENT GREEK AND LATIN LITERATURE IN ENGLISH TRANSLATION
A variable content course devoted to the study of major works of Ancient Greek and Latin literature in English translation. May be repeated for credit with different content. In English. No knowledge of Ancient Greek or Latin required. Not for credit toward a Latin Minor. (3H,3C)

2515,2516: SURVEY OF BRITISH LITERATURE
A two-course sequence introducing students to the major writers of the British literary tradition; 2515 extends from the medieval period to the death of Alexander Pope in 1744; 2516 continues to the present day. This course provides the literary, historical, and social contexts necessary to comprehend significant developments in poetry, drama, prose fiction, and criticism. Pre: 1106 or H1204 or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

2524: INTRODUCTION TO AMERICAN ETHNIC LITERATURES
Introduction to the major American ethnic literatures: African-American, Asian-American, Chicanola, and Native American. Representative texts from each category are examined within the cultural, historical, and geographical matrices within which they were written. Pre: 1106 or 1204H or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

2525,2526: SURVEY OF AMERICAN LITERATURE
A two-course sequence introducing students to the major writers of the American literary tradition; 2525 extends from the colonial period to 1865; 2526 continues to the present day. This course provides the literary, historical, and social contexts necessary to comprehend significant developments in poetry, drama, prose fiction, and criticism. Pre: 1106 or 1204H or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

2604: INTRODUCTION TO CRITICAL READING
A writing intensive introduction to the techniques and theoretical implications of close reading and to the literary genres of poetry, drama, fiction, and, in some sections, non-fiction. The focus is on four primary texts, at least one of which was written before the eighteenth century and one after it, and on criticism of at least one of these. The course emphasizes the analytical skills, basic critical terminology, and conventions of literary criticism essential to advanced English studies. Intended primarily for English majors and minors. Pre: 1106, H1204 or COMM 1016. Co: 2614. (3H,3C)

2614: INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH STUDIES
An introduction to the discipline of English studies and to the English major at Virginia Tech. The focus of the course is on goals and options of English Studies, the uses of technology in the humanities, the materials and techniques of library research, and the concept and multiple uses of the portfolio. Co: 2604. (1H,1C)

2744: INTRODUCTION TO CREATIVE WRITING
A workshop for beginning writers who want to explore their talents in poetry, drama, and fiction. Pre: 1106. (3H,3C)

2804 (AINS 2804): CONTEMPORARY NATIVE AMERICAN LITERATURES
This course offers a sampling of fiction, poetry, and non-fiction by the most influential American Indian writers since 1970, authors such as Momaday, Silko, Deloria, Welch, Harjo, and Alexie. Students will also learn about those aspects of cosmology and storytelling traditionally shared by all American Indian Nations, as well as about those aspects specific to the individual tribal traditions from which the authors and their characters come. Pre: 1106 or H1204 or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

2964: FIELD STUDY
Pass/Fail only. Variable credit course.

2974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.

2984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.

3104: INTRODUCTION TO PROFESSIONAL WRITING
This course introduces students to the theory and practice of professional writing and its functions in workplace settings. In this rhetorically-based course, students gain experience with a variety of writing situations, composing documents that solve problems or help readers make decisions. Students learn current conventions and broadly applicable procedures for analyzing the audiences, purposes, and situations of professional writing, and learn strategies for adapting these conventions and procedures to meet the unique demands of each new situation and task. Pre: 1106 or 1204H. (3H,3C)

3154: LITERATURE, MEDICINE, AND CULTURE
The representation of health and illness in literature and the cultural aspects of medicine as a practice. Pre: 1106 or H1204 or COMM 1016. (3C)

3204: MEDIEVAL LITERATURE
This course presents medieval British literature from ca. 700 to 1500 in its representative modes and defining contexts, including the literary influences of pagan antiquity, the native British (Celtic) tradition, Scandinavian and contemporary continental influences, the Crusades, the Byzantine Empire, and the philosophical traditions of neoplatonism and scholasticism. Specific authors and texts will vary, but will include poetry, prose, and drama. Pre: 1106 or H1204 or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

3214: RENAISSANCE LITERATURE
This course presents Renaissance British literature from 1500-1660 in its representative modes and defining contexts, including the discovery of the Copernican universe and the new world, the rise of Protestantism, the resultant Counter-reformation, the movement from humanism to empiricism, and the institution of Parliamentary democracy. Specific authors and texts will vary, but will include poetry, prose, and drama. Pre: 1106 or H1204 or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

3224: AUGUSTAN LITERATURE
This course presents Restoration and eighteenth-century British literature from 1660 to 1800 in its representative modes and defining contexts, including the expansion of democracy, commerce, and empire, the successes and limitations of Enlightenment philosophy, and the diversification of the literary public to include women, provincial, and laboring writers. Specific authors and texts will vary, but will include poems, essays, plays and novels. Pre: 1106 or 1204 or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

3234: ROMANTIC LITERATURE
This course presents Romantic literature from the late eighteenth century to 1832 in its representative modes and defining contexts, including the French, American, and Industrial Revolutions, the expansion of the British empire, the rise of the novel, Gothicism, and the intellectual influence of periodical essays. Specific authors and texts will vary, but will include poetry, fictional prose, and non-fictional prose. Pre: 1106 or H1204 or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

3244: VICTORIAN LITERATURE
This course presents Victorian British Literature from 1832 to 1901 in its representative modes and defining contexts, including the development of modern science and the decline of traditional religion, the emergence of the mass reading public, and the glorification of the writer's role as prophet, guide, and culture critic. Specific authors and texts will vary, but will include poems, essays, plays, and novels. Pre: 1106 or H1204 or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

3254: AMERICAN LITERATURE BEFORE 1900
This course presents American literature from before 1900 in its representative modes and defining contexts, including colonization, the founding of the republic, the Civil War, the settlement of the west, American Romanticism, and American Realism. Specific authors and texts will vary, but will include poetry and fictional and non-fictional prose. Pre: 1106 or H1204 or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

3264: MODERNIST BRITISH LITERATURE
This course presents Modernist British literature from 1918-1945 in its representative modes and defining contexts, including World Wars I and II, the collapse of the British empire, the influence of Darwin, Marx, and Freud, and such literary movements as Modernism, Realism, and Stream of Consciousness. Specific authors and texts will vary, but will include poetry, prose, and drama. Pre: 1106 or H1204 or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

3274: MODERNIST AMERICAN LITERATURE
This course presents Modernist American literature from 1918 to 1945 in its representative modes and defining contexts, including World Wars I and II, the Great Depression, and such literary movements as Modernism and Realism. Specific authors and texts will vary, but will include poetry, prose, and drama. Pre: 1106 or H1204 or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

3304 (AINS 3304): THE LANGUAGES OF NATIVE AMERICA
Study of the structures of the native languages of the Americas; their interrelationships; their use in individual speech communities; contact with other languages; the interrelationships of linguistic structure, culture, and thought; their future survival. Pre: 1106 or H1204 or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

3315-3316 (TA 3315-3316): PLAYWRITING
A workshop course in the craft and art of playwriting which emphasizes the development of craft and the nurturing of vision and art. 3315: primary focus is on the writing of original scripts with additional attention paid to the work of influential playwrights and critics. 3316: primary focus is on the creative process of developing a play with the collaborative influences of a director, actors, designers, and other theatre professionals. Consent of instructor required for 3316. Pre: 1106 or 1204H or COMM 1016 for 3315; 3315 for 3316. (3H,3C)

3354: LITERARY AND CULTURAL CRITICISM
This course introduces the principal critical approaches used in literary analysis and cultural studies. Major critical schools are covered, with attention to methodology, theoretical backgrounds, and practical interpretation. Pre: 2604. (3H,3C)

3364: TOPICS IN LITERATURE BY WOMEN
This rotating topics course examines literature written by women with different national and ethnic identities and from different historical periods. Specific content varies, but the common focus is on the fundamental issues surrounding women's writing, the critical methodologies commonly employed to analyze this writing, and the historical, social, and literary contexts influencing the particular writing being studied. May be repeated once with different content. Pre: 1106 or 1204H or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

3404 (FR 3404): FRENCH LITERATURE IN ENGLISH
Variable content course devoted to the study of major writers or periods of French literature. May be repeated with different content. May not be taken for credit toward a major or minor in French. In English. One 2000 level English literature course required. (3H,3C)

3414 (GER 3414): GERMAN LITERATURE IN ENGLISH
A variable content course devoted to the study of major German literary works in English translation. May be repeated with different content. May not be taken for credit toward a major or minor in a foreign language. No knowledge of German required. In English. One 2000 level English literature course required. (3H,3C)

3424 (RUS 3424): RUSSIAN LITERATURE IN ENGLISH
Variable-content course devoted to the study of Russian literary classics. Readings and lectures in English. Topics will range from general surveys of 19th century or 20th century Russian literature to more intensive study of the works of a single major author like Tolstoy or Dostoevsky. May be repeated with different content. No knowledge of Russian required. In English. One 2000 level English course required. (3H,3C)

3434 (SPAN 3434): HISPANIC LITERATURE IN ENGLISH
Variable content course devoted to the study of major works of Spanish and Spanish-American literature in translation. May be repeated with different content. May not be taken for credit toward a major or minor in Spanish. No knowledge of Spanish required. In English. One 2000 level English literature course required. (3H,3C)

3514: ETHNIC LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN
This course examines the historical contexts of and issues surrounding ethnic literature for children. The course considers the literature in terms of aesthetics, cultural representations, and identity. Ethnic literatures considered may include Native American, African American, Asian American, and Latinola. The course also introduces other ethnic literary traditions, such as world folk tales, that influence or parallel American ethnic children's books. Pre: 1204H or 1106 or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

3524: LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN
General critical and historical survey of traditional and contemporary writing for children: picture books, folk literature, modern fantasy, poetry, drama, modern fiction, historical fiction. (3H,3C)

3534: LITERATURE AND ECOLOGY
Study of the poetry, prose and dramatic literature that stresses human cooperation with nature conceived as a dynamic, interrelated series of cyclic feedback systems. Included are ways esthetic values (literary themes, form, vision, perception, language) intersect with selected ecological concepts such as biocentrism, the food chain, energy transfer, Gaia theory, and ecofeminism; selected works by contemporary ecologists and environmentalists, and a study of the origins of ecology in the Greek :hp1.oikos :ehp1. or home. This is a writing intensive course. Pre: 1106. (3H,3C)

3544 (COMM 3544): LITERATURE AND FILM
Works of literature and the films into which they have been transformed; emphasis on differences between media. (3H,3C)

3584: THE BIBLE AS LITERATURE
This course focuses on the Bible both as a work of literature and as a major influence on the literatures of the world. Specific books of the Bible to be covered as well as literary-critical approaches will vary. Pre: 1106 or H1204 or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

3614: SOUTHERN LITERATURE
The literature of the American South from 1840 to the present with emphasis on 20th-century fiction, drama, and poetry. Concentration on such writers as Faulkner, Capote, Chopin, Langston Hughes, O'Connor, Welty, Alice Walker, and others. Exploration of such themes as importance of land, family, community; roles of industry and agrarianism; race relations. (3H,3C)

3624: APPALACHIAN LITERATURE
Appalachian writers from the 1800s to the present, including Murfree, Wolfe, and selected contemporary authors. Course will treat artistic merit and such selected themes as the mountains, Appalachia as a frontier, ambivalence about the Civil War, religion, folk ways and traditions, coal mining, and cottage industries. (3H,3C)

3634 (AFST 3634): AFRICAN-AMERICAN LITERATURE
Afro-American writings from Phyllis Wheatley through the slave narratives of the nineteenth century to such modern figures as Wright, Hughes, Baldwin, and Morrison. Pre: 1106. (3H,3C)

3644: POSTCOLONIAL CULTURAL STUDIES
Correlates theoretical, literary, and historical materials from both "western" and "indigenous" sources in order to study at least two postcolonial settings (e.g. Indian, African, South American, Caribbean). Issues will include both contextual matters and literary problems. Pre: 1106. (3H,3C)

3684: LITERATURE AND THE LAW
This course introduces students to the representation of the law and lawyers in literature. Emphasis is placed on the cultural and historical contexts that shape our perception of the law and legal practice and on the use of facts, research, interpretation, and rhetoric in legal argument. Junior standing required. (3H,3C)

3704: CREATIVE WRITING: FICTION
This course is designed for students who want to focus in some depth on the writing of various forms of fiction as the short story and novella. Emphasis is on the writing and critiquing of original fiction in a workshop/studio environment, and the analysis of exemplary texts which serve as models. Students produce a body of original fiction in draft and revised forms. May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credit hours. Pre: 2744. (3H,3C)

3714: CREATIVE WRITING: POETRY
This course is designed for students who want to focus in some depth on the writing of poetry. Emphasis in on the writing and critiquing of original poetry in a workshop/studio environment, and the analysis of exemplary poems which serve as models. Students analyze various poetic forms and produce a revised body of original poetry. May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credit hours. Pre: 2744. (3H,3C)

3724: CREATIVE WRITING: CREATIVE NON-FICTION
This course is designed for students who want to focus in some depth on the writing of creative non-fiction in its various forms, including memoir, personal experience writing the lyrical essay, travel narratives, and nature writing. Emphasis is on the writing and critiquing of original creative non-fiction in a workshop/studio environment, and the analysis of exemplary texts which serve as models. Students produce a body of original non-fiction in draft and revised forms. May be repeated for a maximum of 9 credit hours. Pre: 2744. (3H,3C)

3754: ADVANCED COMPOSITION
Advanced training in writing analytical and critical essays. Practice in addressing a range of audiences and in using varied styles and organizational patterns. Workshop and conference for students in arts and humanities, as well as for technical and extension students who wish to address non-specialized audiences and to practice forms outside their own fields. Junior standing required. (3H,3C)

3764: TECHNICAL WRITING
Principles and procedure of technical writing; attention to analyzing audience and purpose, organizing information, designing graphic aids, and writing such specialized forms as abstracts, instructions, and proposals. Junior standing required. (3H,3C)

3774: BUSINESS WRITING
Extensive practice in forms of persuasive and informative writing such as memos, case analyses, reports, abstracts, and letters. Designed for students in all curricula. the College of Business. Junior standing required. (3H,3C)

3804: TECHNICAL EDITING AND STYLE
Technical Editing and Style explores the art of editing from the initial writing task to the final delivery of the document. In addition to learning document management, students study and practice the roles, responsibilities, and tasks that editors perform. The course also covers the rules that govern the fundamentals of style (correctness, clarity, and propriety) and the principles needed to match the tone and formality to the aim, audience, and occasion of the work. Must have pre-requisites or the consent of the Director of Professional Writing. Pre: 3104. (3H,3C)

3814: CREATING USER DOCUMENTATION
This course prepares students to produce both print and online user documentation that enables people to accomplish a given set of tasks (e.g., user guides, online help, policy and procedure manuals, tutorials, and how-to books). Readings include rhetorical theory and discussions of professional practice. Students learn the principles of user and task analysis, information design, usability testing, and indexing. In addition, they have opportunities for hands-on experience with clients and end-users. Must have pre-requisites or the consent of the Director of Professional Writing. Pre: 3804. (3H,3C)

3824: DESIGNING DOCUMENTS FOR PRINT
This course prepares students to design and produce complex documents such as proposals, brochures, booklets, and newsletters using computer technologies. Students learn rhetorical and visual factors (e.g., legibility, readability, layout, and integration of text/images) that contribute to the effectiveness and usability of documents. In addition, students study the use of color and electronic image editing. They also master some of the technologies necessary to publish documents from their desktops. In addition to working on individual projects, students engage in collaborative exercises intended to sharpen their teamwork, editing, writing, aaudience-awareness, and design skills. Must have prerequisite or consent of the Director of Professional Writing. Pre: 3804. (3H,3C)

3954: STUDY ABROAD
Variable credit course. X-grade allowed.

3984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.

4024: ADVANCED TOPICS IN LITERARY AND CULTURAL CRITICISM
This rotating topics course focuses on theory-based analysis of literature and culture. Topically organized, one theoretical school, cultural practice, or literary trend is addressed. Depth is emphasized over breadth, with attention to the application of theory (practical criticism) to texts, cultural practices, or public discourses. May be repeated once for credit with a different topic. Pre: 3354. (3H,3C)

4044: LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
English language variation in the United States is considered from a current sociolinguistic perspective. Social, regional, ethnic, gender, and stylistic-related language variation are covered, along with models for collecting, describing, and applying knowledge about language variation. Students are exposed to a wide range of data on language variation, with emphasis on vernacular varieties of American English. Pre: 1106 or 1204H. (3H,3C)

4054: HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
Development of English including both its internal history (sounds, vocabulary, inflections, syntax) and its external history (political, social, and intellectual forces). Indo-European origins through the present, with special emphasis on the English Language in America. (3H,3C)

4064: MODERN ENGLISH LINGUISTICS
Study of language as a rule-governed system of knowledge, with special attention to the following: transformational analysis of the structure of English sounds, words, and sentences; the history of the language, the dialects of English, and the pragmatics of communication. (3H,3C)

4074: ENGLISH SYNTAX
This course introduces the grammatical structures of the English language and the processes by which we create and comprehend English sentences. Emphasis is on recent linguistic models. Topics include morphological structure, form- and structure-class taxonomy, phrase structure, transformational and generative approaches, language variation. Alternative models will be considered. Pre: 1106. (3H,3C)

4084: TOPICS IN LINGUISTICS
An advanced course in such areas of linguistics as phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, language change, dialectology, etc. Emphasis will be placed on the analysis of natural language data within contemporary theoretical frameworks. Individual sections will focus upon differing areas of linguistics (to be specified in the subtitle of the course). Repeatable with different content for a maximum of nine credits. Pre: 4064 or 4074. (3H,3C)

4114: CHAUCER
This course examines the life, work, and critical reception of Geoffrey Chaucer. Junior standing required. (3H,3C)

4124: INTRODUCTION TO OLD ENGLISH
(3H,3C) Introduction to Old English grammar and reading of Old.

4165,4166: SHAKESPEARE
The plays of Shakespeare. 4165: Shakespeare's early career (1590-1600), including history plays from HENRY VI to HENRY V, comedies from THE COMEDY OF ERRORS to THE MERRY WIVES OF WINDSOR, and early tragedies such as ROMEO AND JULIET and JULIUS CAESAR. 4166: the later career, including "problem plays" such as MEASURE FOR MEASURE, the great tragedies (HAMLET, KING LEAR, OTHELLO, MACBETH), and the romances such as THE TEMPEST. (3H,3C)

4214: MILTON
Milton's poetry from the early works, including COMUS, LYCIDAS, and the sonnets, to his major late works PARADISE LOST, PARADISE REGAINED, and SAMSON AGONISTES; with some attention to the important prose and to the historical context in which he wrote. (3H,3C)

4405,4406: THE ENGLISH NOVEL
4405: Development of the English novel to 1850, including such novelists as Defoe, Richardson, Fielding, Sterne, Austen, the Brontes, and Thackeray. 4406: Major novels from 1850 to World War II, including Dickens, Trollope, Eliot, Gaskell, Hardy, Woolf, Joyce, Lawrence, Huxley, and Waugh. (3H,3C)

4414: TOPICS IN SPECULATIVE FICTION
This variable content course offers an advanced exploration of deliberately anti-realistic narratives such as science fiction, utopian and dystopian fiction, and fantasy. May be taken twice with differing content. Junior standing required. (3H,3C)

4415,4416: AMERICAN NARRATIVE TO 1950
4415: The history of American narrative to 1865; 4416: The history of American narrative from 1865 to 1950; genres to be addressed may include diaries, journals, letters, autobiographies, narratives of captivity, essays, sermons, folktales, short fiction, and novels. Junior standing required. (3H,3C)

4424: DIGITAL LITERARY CULTURE
The interpretation of literary forms produced specifically for digital environments. Students will learn to analyze the design and rhetoric of hypertexts and hypermedia. Pre: 3354. (3H,3C)

4504: MODERN POETRY
British and American poetry from 1900 to World War II with emphasis on such figures as Pound, Williams, Stevens, Yeats, Sylvia Plath, Stevie Smith, and Eliot. (3H,3C)

4514: CONTEMPORARY POETRY
British and American poetry from World War II to the present, with emphasis on such figures as Bishop, Lowell, Ashbery, Heaney, and Hughes. (3H,3C)

4554: BRITISH DRAMA TO 1800
Plays from the Middle Ages through the 18th century (excluding Shakespeare). Includes works by the anonymous authors of the medieval mystery and morality plays and by such playwrights as Marlowe, Johnson, Webster, Ford, Dryden, Wycherly, and Goldsmith. (3H,3C)

4564: MODERN DRAMA
Plays by 19th and 20th century British, American, and continental dramatists, beginning with Ibsen and Shaw and culminating with Beckett and the contemporary Theatre of the Absurd. (3H,3C)

4624: STUDIES IN A BRITISH AUTHOR AFTER 1800
This course examines the life, work, and critical reception of a single major British author (or pair of closely associated authors) writing after 1800. May be taken up to 3 times with different content. Junior standing required. (3H,3C)

4634: STUDIES IN AN AMERICAN AUTHOR BEFORE 1900
This course examines the life, work, and critical reception of a single major American author (or a pair of closely associated authors) writing before 1900. May be taken up to three times with different content. Junior standing is required. (3H,3C)

4644: STUDIES IN AN AMERICAN AUTHOR AFTER 1900
This course examines the life, work, and critical reception of a single major American author (or pair of closely associated authors) writing after 1900. May be taken up to three times with different content. Junior standing is required. (3H,3C)

4664: CONTEMPORARY FICTION
Fiction since 1945 with emphasis upon the most recent two decades: the late modernist narratives of Bellow, Updike, and Percy; the new fiction of Barth, Hawkes, Barthelme; the postmodern fiction of Federman, Carter, Fowles, Katz, Sukenick. (3H,3C)

4674: STUDIES IN CONTEMPORARY CULTURE
Studies the emerging changes across arts media (including architecture, cyberculture, essay, fiction, film, painting, performance, photography, poetry, theatre, video) in relation to current cultural and social theory from a variety of disciplines (including architectural theory, art, history, literature, philosophy, psychoanalysis, and social sciences). (3H,3C)

4684: SPECIAL TOPICS IN LITERATURE
An advanced, variable-content course which explores a significant or emergent literary issue or approach, or a body of literature. May be taken twice with different content. Pre: 3204 or 3214 or 3224 or 3234 or 3244 or 3254 or 3264 or 3274. (3H,3C)

4704: ADVANCED CREATIVE WRITING: FICTION
Designed for senior English majors who have selected the Creative Writing option, this is an intensive, advanced workshop. This capstone course builds on skills students have acquired in creative writing workshops. Primary focus is on the writing and critiquing of original fiction, while paying close attention to the work of established writers who are acknowledged masters of their genres. Students hone their skills as peer reviewers and constructive critics. In the process, they produce, a portfolio of their own fiction. Pre: 3704. Co: 4734. (3H,3C)

4714: ADVANCED CREATIVE WRITING: POETRY
Designed for senior English majors who have selected the Creative Writing option, this is an intensive, advanced workshop. This capstone course builds on the skills acquired in previous creative writing workshops. Primary focus is on the writing and critiquing of original poems, while paying close attention to the work of established poets who are acknowledged masters of their genres. Students hone their skills as peer reviewers and constructive critics. In the process, they produce a portfolio of their own poetry. Pre: 3714. Co: 4734. (3H,3C)

4724: CREATIVE WRITING: FICTION FOR YOUNG PEOPLE
This course is conducted in a workshop setting in which students compose original stories for young people. Elementary techniques of fiction are emphasized, such as plot structure, point of view, setting, characterization, and audience. Must have prerequisites or permission of the instructor. Pre: 3704. (3H,3C)

4734: SENIOR PORTFOLIO DEVELOPMENT IN CREATIVE WRITING
A course focused on the development of the senior portfolio and on making an effective and well-informed transition from undergraduate study to careers or graduate/professional school. English majors in the Creative Writing option only. Co: 4704. (1H,1C)

4774: SENIOR PORTFOLIO DEVELOPMENT IN LITERATURE, LANGUAGE, AND CULTURE
A course focused on the development of the senior portfolio and on making an effective and well-informed transition from undergraduate study to careers or graduate/professional school. English majors in the Literature, Language, and Culture option only. Co: 4784. (1H,1C)

4784: SENIOR SEMINAR
Designed for senior English majors, this is a variable topics, in-depth study of a particular issue or theme in language or literature. This capstone course aims to integrate and synthesize previous work in the discipline, focusing especially on close reading, research, and writing skills. Pre: 1106. Co: 4774. (3H,3C)

4804: GRANT PROPOSALS AND REPORTS
This course prepares students to write effective proposals, reports, and informational articles. Students learn to define and write problem statements, program objectives, plans of action, evaluation plans, budget presentations, and summaries. In addition, they sharpen their teamwork, editing, writing, audience awareness, and design skills as they engage in collaborative projects with campus and/or non-profit organizations in the community. Prerequisite or consent of the instructor is required. Pre: 3804. (3H,3C)

4814: WRITING FOR THE WEB
This course prepares students to write and design complex documents for the World Wide Web, with a particular emphasis on communicating complex, technical, and scientific information. Students learn rhetorical principles, writing strategies, visual design factors, and technologies needed to create effective, usable web sites. They will develop sites in both individual and team settings, apply the principles of usability testing, and locate and use resources to help them keep pace with this rapidly changing field. Pre: 3804. (3H,3C)

4824: SCIENCE WRITING
Writing in and about the natural and social sciences. Students will write documents such as abstracts, research proposals, and ethnographies, analyze the development of disciplinary writing practices, and study non-fiction science writing for general audiences. Senior standing or instructor approval required. Pre: 1106 or H1204 or COMM 1016. (3H,3C)

4864: SENIOR PORTFOLIO DEVELOPMENT IN PROFESSIONAL WRITING
A course focused on the development of the senior portfolio and on making an effective and well-informed transiiton from undergraduate study to careers or graduate/professional school. English majors in the Professional Writing option only. Co: 4874. (1H,1C)

4874: ISSUES IN PROFESSIONAL AND PUBLIC DISCOURSE
In this course designed for English majors in the Professional Writing Option, students will focus on the ways in which scientific, technical, and professional communication influence, and are influenced by, public discourse. Drawing on strategies of rhetorical criticism, students will gain an understanding of the persuasive value of style, arrangement, and delivery by investigating their professional roles in helping to structure public debate. Pre: 3804. Co: 4864. (3H,3C)

4964: FIELD STUDY
Variable credit course.

4974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.

4984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course. X-grade allowed.

4994: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
Variable credit course.

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Virginia Tech 2007-08 Undergraduate Course Catalog and Academic Policies