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College of Science

Geosciences

www.geol.vt.edu/
E-mail: geosciences@vt.edu

R. J. Tracy, Chair
University Distinguished Professor:
R.J. Bodnar
Professors: R.J. Bodnar; P.M. Dove; K.A. Eriksson; M.F. Hochella, Jr.; R.D. Law; J. F. Read; J.D. Rimstidt; N.L. Ross; A.K. Sinha; J.A. Snoke; R.J. Tracy
Associate Professors: T.J. Burbey; J.A. Hole; M.G. Imhof;
M.J. Kowalewski; M. E. Schreiber; J.A. Spotila; S. Xiao
Assistant Professor: B.M. Bekken
Research Professor: R.J. Angel
Research Assistant Professor: M.C. Chapman
Adjunct and Affiliated Faculty: J.S. Beard; J. A. Chermak; W.S. Henika;
J.R. Martin, II; M.J. Mikulich; P.C. Ragland; S.E. Scheckler; L.W. Zelazny

Geosciences students

Overview

    Geosciences offer exciting opportunities for students with an interest in applying a full range of science and mathematical skills to understand the earth’s properties and dynamic processes. This is a highly interdisciplinary program that applies physics, chemistry, biology, and mathematics to understand and manage all aspects of Earth and the environment. Geoscientists work everywhere in the world under almost any condition as they search for earth resources, manage the environment and natural hazards, and supervise technical and business enterprises. For more information about exciting careers in Geosciences consult earthinspace.org/careers/, www.agiweb.org/careers.html, and www.bls.gov/oco/ocos050.htm. The extensive scientific and mathematical skills of geoscientists, along with their broad field experience, allow them to pursue careers in many related fields ranging from materials sciences to technical management to scientific reporting.

    The internationally recognized faculty in Geosciences has developed four challenging options, described below, that lead to a B.S. in Geosciences. Coursework emphasizes the acquisition and processing of field data beginning with a special course in field methods taken in the spring of the first year. The geology option requires, and the other options recommend, that the student participate in a six-week field camp. The B.S. in Geosciences provides pre-professional preparation that will allow students to continue their education in post graduate programs in science, law, and business

    Earth systems and processes are enormously complicated and require a full range of intellectual skills to decipher and manage. Geoscientists must possess good quantitative skills and a solid understanding of physics, chemistry, and biology. They must be able to read maps, identify rocks, minerals, and fossils as well as visualize earth structures in three dimensions. They must have strong communication skills, both written and verbal. Learning to use these skills in an integrated way is a challenging and rewarding experience.

Geology Option

    The Geology option offers a detailed coverage of the broad range of classic disciplines within the geosciences. This option emphasized the study of minerals, rocks and fossils, and teaches the student how to understand the processes and history of the earth based on the occurrences and relationships of these materials at or near the Earth's surface. The required curriculum for undergraduates pursuing the B.S. in Geosciences with a option in Geology are; BIOL 1105, 1106, 1115, 1116 (8C); CHEM 1035, 1036, 1045, 1046 (8C); GEOS 1004, 1005, 1014, 1104, 2444, 3104, 3204, 3404, 3504, 3604, 3704, 4024, 4494, 4000 level electives (50C); MATH 1114, 1205, 1206, 1224, 2224 (13C); PHYS 2305, 2306 (8C); STAT 3005 (3C); free electives (6C).

Geochemistry Option

    The Geochemistry option is designed for those students who have special interest in the chemical aspects of the Earth and its materials. The required curriculum for undergraduates pursuing the B.S. in Geosciences with an option in Geochemistry are: CHEM 1035, 1036, 1045, 1046, plus 10 additional credits selected from 2114, 2124, 2514, 2535, 2536, 2545, 2546, 3114, 3124, 3615, 3625, 4615, 4616, or 4424 (18C); GEOS 1004, 1005, 1014, 1024, 1104, 1124, 2444, 3104, 3204, 3404, 3504, 3604, 3704, 4024, 4634, 4974 (43C); MATH 1114, 1205, 1206, 1224,2214, 2224 (16C); PHYS 2305, 2306 (8C); STAT 3005 (3C); 3-4000 level additional credits from the Departments of Biochemistry, Biology, Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Computer Science, Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Engineering Science and Mechanics, Geosciences, Materials Science and Engineering, Mathematics, Mining and Minerals Engineering, Physics, Statistics (7C); free electives (4C).

Geophysics Option

    The Geophysics option offers the student the opportunity to specialize in the branch of the geosciences that investigates physical earth processes such as earthquakes and that images the interior of the earth through surface-based physical measurements. The required courses for the B.S. in Geosciences with an option in Geophysics are: CHEM 1035, 1036, 1045, 1046 (8C); CS 1044 (3C); GEOS 1004, 1005, 1014, 1104, 2444, 3104, 3204, 3404, 3504, 3604, 3704, 4024, 4124, 4154, 4164, 4174, (46C); MATH 1114, 1205, 1206, 1224, 2214, 2224 (16C); PHYS 2305, 2306 (8C); Science/Math elective (6C); STAT 3005 (3C); free electives (6C).

Earth Science Education Option

    The Earth Science education option provides students with a broad earth science curriculum that meets the content goals for secondary earth science teaching. Certification for Earth science teaching is not provided in the program. Information about teaching certification in Virginia can be obtained from the Department of Teaching and Learning. The courses required to complete a B.S. in Geosciences with an option in Earth Science Education are: BIOL 1105, 1106, 1115, 1116 (8C); CHEM 1035, 1036, 1045, 1046 (8C); GEOS 1004, 1005, 1014, 1024, 1104, 1124, 2444, 3035, 3104, 3114, 3204, 3404, 3504, 3604, 3704, 4024, 3-4000 electives, (48C); HIST 3705, 3706 (6C); MATH 1016, 2015, 2016, 2524 (12C); PHYS 1055, 1115, 2205, 2206, 2215, 2216 (12C); STAT 3615 (3C); free electives (8C).

Minor in Geosciences

    Requirements include GEOS 1004, 1014, 1104 (8C); plus 3-4000 level courses in geosciences (12C). GEOS 2104 duplicates GEOS 1004 for 3 credits only. GEOS 4974 and 4994 may not be used toward the minimum of 20 total credits

Graduate Program

    The department offers M.S. and Ph.D. degrees in geosciences with specializations in many sub-disciplines. (See the Graduate Catalog for further information.)

Satisfactory Progress

    University policy requires that students who are making satisfactory progress toward a degree meet minimum criteria toward the Curriculum for Liberal Education (a.k.a. University Core) (see Academics chapter in this catalog), toward the College of Science Core (see first part of this chapter) and toward the degree in geosciences.

    Satisfactory progress toward the B.S. in Geosciences, Geology option, requires that:

  1. Upon having attempted 72 semester credits (including transfer, advanced placement, advanced standing, credit by examination, course withdrawal policy), students must have completed:
    CHEM 1035, 1036: General Chemistry 6
    CHEM 1045, 1046: General Chemistry Lab 2
    ENGL 1105, 1106: Freshman English 6
    GEOS 1004: Physical Geology 3
    GEOS 1005: Geoscience Fundamentals 1
    GEOS 1104: Physical Geology Lab 1
    GEOS 1014: The Earth and Life Through Time 4
    GEOS 3104: Elementary Geophysics 3
    GEOS 3404: Structural Geology 3
    GEOS 3504: Mineralogy 3
    MATH 1114: Elementary Linear Algebra 2
    MATH 1205,1206: Calculus 6
    MATH 1224: Vector Geometry 2
    MATH 2224: Multivariable Calculus 3
    PHYS 2305, 2306: Foundations of Physics 8
    Total Credits
    53
  2. Upon having 96 semester credits, students must have an in-major grade point average of 2.0 or above.
  • Satisfactory progress toward the B.S. in Geosciences, Geochemistry option, requires that:
  1. Upon having attempted 72 semester credits (including transfer, advanced placement, advanced standing, and credit by examination, course withdrawal policy), students must have completed:
    CHEM 1035, 1036: General Chemistry 6
    CHEM 1045, 1046: General Chemistry Lab 2
    Chemistry electives 7
    ENGL 1105, 1106: Freshman English 6
    GEOS 1004: Physical Geology 3
    GEOS 1005: Geoscience Fundamentals 1
    GEOS 1104: Physical Geology Lab 1
    GEOS 1014: The Earth and Life Through Time 4
    GEOS 3504: Mineralogy 3
    MATH 1114: Elementary Linear Algebra 2
    MATH 1205, 1206: Calculus 6
    MATH 1224: Vector Geometry 2
    MATH 2214: Differential Equations 3
    MATH 2224: Multivariable Calculus 3
    Total Credits
    49
  2. Upon having 96 semester credits, students must have an in-major grade point average of 2.0 or above.
  • Satisfactory progress toward the B.S. in Geosciences, Geophysics option, requires that:
  1. Upon having attempted 72 semester credits (including transfer, advanced placement, advanced standing, credit by examination, course withdrawal policy), students must have completed:
    CHEM 1035, 1036: General Chemistry
    6
    CHEM 1045, 1046: General Chemistry Lab
    2
    ENGL 1105, 1106 : Freshman English
    6
    GEOS 1004: Physical Geology
    3
    GEOS 1005: Geosciences Fundamentals
    1
    GEOS 1104: Physical Geology Lab
    1
    GEOS 1014: The Earth and Life Through Time
    4
    GEOS 3104: Elementary Geophysics
    3
    GEOS 3404: Structural Geology
    3
    GEOS 3504: Mineralogy
    3
    MATH 1114: Elementary Linear Algebra
    2
    MATH 1205, 1206: Calculus
    6
    MATH 1224: Vector Geometry
    2
    MATH 2214: Differential Equations
    3
    MATH 2224: Multivariable Calculus
    3
    PHYS 2305, 2306: Foundations of Physics
    8
    Total Credits
    56
  2. Upon having 96 semester credits, students must have an in-major grade point average of 2.0 or above.
  • Satisfactory progress toward the B.S. in Geosciences, Earth Science Education option, requires that:
  1. Upon having attempted 72 semester credits (including transfer, advanced placement, advanced standing, and credit by examination, course withdrawal policy), students must have completed:
    CHEM 1035, 1036: General Chemistry 6
    CHEM 1045, 1046: General Chemistry Lab 2
    ENGL 1105, 1106: Freshman English 6
    GEOS 1004: Physical Geology 3
    GEOS 1005: Geoscience Fundamentals 1
    GEOS 1024: Resources and the Environment 3
    GEOS 1104: Physical Geology Lab 1
    GEOS 1014: The Earth and Life Through Time 4
    GEOS 1124: Resources and the Environment Lab 1
    GEOS 2444: Geoscience Field Observations 2
    GEOS 3504: Mineralogy 3
    GEOS 3704: Igneous & Metamorphic Rocks 3
    MATH 1016: Elementary Calculus with Trigonometry I 3
    MATH 2015, 2016: Elementary Calculus with Trigonometry II 6
    PHYS 2205, 2206: General Physics 6
    PHYS 2215, 2216: General Physics Lab 2
    Total Credits
    52
  2. Upon having 96 semester credits, students must have an in-major grade point average of 2.0 or above.

Undergraduate Courses (GEOS)

1004: PHYSICAL GEOLOGY
Minerals and rocks, internal and external processes especially the modification of landscape, global plate tectonics, and their interrelationships; introduction to the more direct aspects of human interactions with the natural physical environment. (3H,3C)

1005-1006: GEOSCIENCE FUNDAMENTALS
Introduction to professional expectations and career options for students pursuing a degree in Geosciences. 1005: Scientific methodology, empirical reasoning, and the specific application of these methods to the Geosciences. Introduction to accessing and using geoscientific resources, computer graphics and database applications in geoscience, and methods of oral and written technical communication. 1006: Career opportunities in geoscience, introduction to research, GIS applications in geoscience, case studies of applied geoscience. Co: 1004 for 1005; 1014 for 1006. (3L,1C)

1014: THE EARTH AND LIFE THROUGH TIME
Scientific examination of rocks, fossils, and the earth's interior as clues to global-scale geological and biological processes that have shaped our planet and its biosphere through time. Origin and physical evolution of the earth, oceans, and atmosphere; origin and evolution of life; plate tectonics and mountain-building events; global climate changes; major evolutionary innovations; mass extinction events. (3H,3L,4C)

1024: RESOURCES GEOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT
The nature, origin, occurrence, distribution, use, and limitations of the earth's mineral resources including abundant and scarce metals, precious metals and gems, building materials, industrial minerals, fossil fuels, nuclear energy, water, soils, and other minerals. (3H,3C)

1104: PHYSICAL GEOLOGY LABORATORY
Identification of minerals and rocks; topographic maps and air photographs and their use in understanding landscape and geologic influences on human activities; geologic maps. (3L,1C)

1124: RESOURCES GEOLOGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT LABORATORY
Laboratory exercises dealing with the nature of mineral resources, how they are exploited, and the practical concerns associated with their extraction. (3L,1C)

2104: ELEMENTS OF GEOLOGY
Structure of the earth, properties of minerals and rocks, and geologic processes that act on the surface and in the interior of the earth, and integrated geologic systems of importance in engineering and regional planning. For students in engineering and physical sciences. Geology 2104 duplicates material in Geology 1004 and both may not be taken for credit. (2H,3L,3C)

2444: GEOSCIENCE FIELD OBSERVATIONS
Study of geological phenomena in the field. Students make observations in the field, integrate them into coherent datasets, and construct interpretations. Rock type and structure identification in outcrop. Field techniques and applications in structural geology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, geomorphology, environmental geology, hydrogeology, geochemistry, and geophysics. 10 full days spent in the field (Mondays through Fridays during Summer I), plus additional classroom or laboratory meetings. Pre: 1004, 1014, 1104. (6L,2C)

2964: FIELD STUDY
Pass/Fail only. Variable credit course. X-grade allowed.

2974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.

2984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course. X-grade allowed.

3014: ENVIRONMENTAL GEOSCIENCES
The roles of geology and geophysics in defining and monitoring the natural environment, with special application to interactions between humans and the geologic environment. Both descriptive treatment and quantitative concepts related to environmental processes involving the solid earth and earth's surface, with emphasis on geologic hazards (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides and slope failures, flooding, groundwater problems, mineral and rock dusts). Pre: 1004 or 1024 or 2104. (3H,3C)

3024: FORTRAN FOR PHYSICAL SCIENCE
Computer programming using Fortran 95 with applications to physical science, including statistics, physics, geology, and hydrology. Applications used to expose students to the capabilities of the language will include arrays, I/O concepts, structured programming, data types, procedures and modules, and dynamic data structures. Pre: MATH 1114, MATH 1206 or MATH 2015. (3H,3C)

3034: OCEANOGRAPHY
Descriptive and quantitative treatment of the geological, physical, chemical and biological processes that occur in, or are influenced by, the oceans. The history of oceanic exploration and discovery is addressed. Pre: MATH 1206 or MATH 2015. (3H,3C)

3104: ELEMENTARY GEOPHYSICS
Acquisition and interpretation of exploration geophysical data. Seismic reflection and refraction methods, gravity and magnetic fields, geoelectrical methods, and geophysical well logging. Pre: MATH 1205. (2H,3L,3C)

3114 (GEOG 3114): INTRODUCTION TO METEOROLOGY
A nonmathematical introduction to meteorology including consideration of the structure of the atmosphere, energy balance in the atmosphere, clouds and precipitation, air masses and fronts, global circulation, storms, climatology, catastrophic weather, meteorological optics, and forecasting. (2H,3L,3C)

3204: SEDIMENTOLOGY-STRATIGRAPHY
Study of sedimentary basins in a plate-tectonic framework, mechanisms of basin formation, three-dimensional geometry of basin fill, and controls on basin fill. Siliciclastic and carbonate-evaporate rocks as examples of basin fill are discussed in lectures and studied in the lab and in the field. Applied aspects of the course include a discussion of geometries of sedimentary aquifers and reservoirs. Pre: 1004 or 1014. (2H,3L,3C)

3304 (CSES 3304) (GEOG 3304): GEOMORPHOLOGY
Examines the variety of landforms that exist at the earth's surface. Detailed investigation of major processes operating at the earth's surface including: tectonic, weathering, fluvial, coastal, eolian, and glacial processes. Field excursion. Pre: GEOG 1104 or GEOS 1004 or GEOS 2104. (3H,3C)

3404: ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY
Introduction to basic geological structures, evolution of microfabrics, development of faults, folds and foliations, stereographic analysis of geological structures, thrust fault geometries, balancing of geological cross-sections, and introduction to the concepts of stress and strain. Pre: 1004. (2H,3L,3C)

3504 (MSE 3104): MINERALOGY
Principles of modern mineralogy, crystal chemistry, and crystallography, with emphasis on mineral atomic structure and physical property relationships, mineralogy in the context of geology, geochemistry, environmental science and geophysics, phase equilibria, mineral associations, and mineral identification, and industrial applications of minerals. There are three required field trips during the semester. Pre: MATH 1205, CHEM 1036. (2H,3L,3C)

3524 (MSE 3124): OPTICAL MINERALOGY
Principles of color and the behavior of light in crystalline materials; use of the petrographic microscope in the identification of minerals using optical techniques. Pre: 1004. Co: 3504. (3L,1C)

3604: PALEONTOLOGY
Paleontological principles and techniques and their application to the evolution of life, the ecological structure of ancient biological communities, the interpretation of ancient depositional environments, and the history of the earth. Pre: 1004, 1014. (2H,3L,3C)

3614 (CSES 3114) (ENSC 3114): SOILS
Characterization of soils as a natural resource emphasizing their physical, chemical, mineralogical, and biological properties in relation to nutrient availability, fertilization, plant growth, land-use management, waste application, soil and water quality, and food production. For CSES, ENSC, and related plant- and earth-science majors. Partially duplicates CSES/ENSC 3134. Pre: CHEM 1036. (3H,3C)

3624 (CSES 3124) (ENSC 3124): SOILS LABORATORY
Parent materials, morphology, physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils and related soil management and land use practices will be studied in field and lab. Partially duplicates CSES/ENSC 3134. Co: 3614. (3L,1C)

3704: IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC ROCKS
Study of characteristics and mechanisms of igneous intrusion at depth in the crust, volcanic phenomena on the surface, and textural and mineralogical modification of rocks at elevated temperatures and pressures of crustal metamorphism. Tectonic aspects of igneous and metamorphic rocks will be stressed. Pre: 1004, 1014. Co: 3504. (2H,3L,3C)

4024: SENIOR SEMINAR
Investigation and solution of significant geologic research problems by analysis and integration of information across a wide spectrum of Geosciences subdisciplines, and the presentation of results in oral and written form. Research projects will provide maximum student exposure to the full breadth of the Geosciences and the interrelated nature of subdisciplines. Pre: 3104, 3204, 3404, 3504, 3604, 3704. (3H,3C)

4084 (GEOG 4084): INTRODUCTION TO GIS
Use of automated systems for geographic data collection, digitization, storage, display and analysis. Basic data flow in GIS applications. Overview of GIS applications. Group homework projects to develop proficiency in the use of current GIS software. Prior experience with personal computers recommended. (3H,3C)

4124: SEISMIC STRATIGRAPHY
Overview of seismic data acquisition and processing methods, seismic wavelets, static and dynamic corrections, and seismic velocities; seismic reflection data interpretation; seismic reflection responses Seismic mapping; seismic stratigraphy and seismic lithology. Consent required. Pre: 3104. (2H,3L,3C)

4154: EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY
Seismicity and its causes in the context of plate tectonics; determination of earthquake location, size and focal parameters; seismogram interpretation; seismometry; hazard potential; use of earthquakes in determining earth structure. Pre: MATH 2214, MATH 2224, PHYS 2305, GEOS 3104. (2H,3L,3C)

4164: POTENTIAL FIELD METHODS IN EXPLORATION GEOPHYSICS
Theory and application to engineering, environmental, and resource exploration. Gravity, magnetics, electrical resistivity, self potential, induced polarization, ground-penetrating radar, magnetotellurics, electromagnetic induction. Pre: 3104, MATH 2214, MATH 2224, PHYS 2306. (3H,3L,4C)

4174: EXPLORATION SEISMOLOGY
Theory and application of seismic methods to engineering, environmental and resource exploration: reflection seismics, refraction seismics, and tomography. Data acquisition, digital filtering, data corrections, imaging, interpretation, and forward modeling. Pre: 3104, MATH 2224, PHYS 2305, PHYS 2306. (3H,3L,4C)

4324 (BIOL 4324): PLANT EVOLUTION (WRITING INTENSIVE)
Geological history, comparative morphology, evolution and systematics of pre-vascular and vascular plants. Focus on evolution of communities, adaptive construction of tissues and organs, and ecology of reproduction. Pre: BIOL 2304. (2H,6L,4C)

4354 (GEOG 4354): INTRODUCTION TO REMOTE SENSING
Theory and methods of remote sensing. Practical exercises in interpretation of aerial photography, satellite, radar and thermal infrared imagery. Digital analysis, image classification and evaluation. Applications in earth sciences, hydrology, plant sciences, and land use studies. (2H,3L,3C)

4404: ADVANCED STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY
Basic principles of rock behavior under applied, non-hydrostatic stress (experimental and tectonic) and analysis of the geometrical patterns produced. Alternate years. Pre: 3404. (2H,3L,3C)

4414: ENGINEERING GEOLOGY
The geological principles and techniques that are required in civil engineering projects and the influence of geology on design, location, construction, and stability of engineering structures. Pre: 1004 or 2104. (2H,2C)

4494: GEOLOGY SUMMER FIELD COURSE
Synthesis of course work through field mapping and studies of topical areas in soft- and hard-rock terrains. Geology of the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge and Valley and Ridge Provinces. Training in field methods and techniques. Consent required. Pre: 1004, 1014, 3404. (2H,48L,6C)

4554: GEOLOGIC ASPECTS OF NUCLEAR AND TOXIC WASTE DISPOSAL
Review of the geochemical characteristics of radionuclides and other toxic, inorganic materials and how these characteristics affect safe disposal of these materials in the natural environment. Examination of the effects of near-surface geologic processes such as groundwater movement and geologic hazards on long-term storage of nuclear wastes, with application to evaluation of current and proposed disposal sites. Pre: CHEM 1036. (2H,3L,3C)

4624: MINERAL DEPOSITS
Introduction to the range and variety of metallic and non-metallic economic mineral deposits. Classification of the petrologic and tectonic settings of mineral deposits. Source, transport and depositional mechanisms of mineral deposit formation. Laboratory emphasizes identification of ore minerals, gangue minerals, common host rocks, wall-rock alteration and mineral zoning. Pre: 1004 or 2104, 3104 or 3404. (2H,3L,3C)

4634: ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY
Application of quantitative methods of thermodynamic and physicochemical analysis to the study of the distribution and movement of chemical elements in surface and near-surface geological environments. Emphasis on practical approaches to environmental geochemistry. Pre: MATH 1205, CHEM 1036. (2H,3L,3C)

4644: ORGANIC GEOCHEMISTRY
Composition, origin and distribution of organic matter in the geological environment; the carbon cycle; terminology and structure of organic molecules; metamorphism of organic materials; formation and composition of coal, oil, natural gas; organic geochemistry of the oceans; role of organics in ore formation; organic compounds in natural waters; abiogenic organic compounds in magmatic rocks and fluids. Pre: 1004 or 2104, 1014 or 1024, CHEM 1036. (3H,3C)

4704: IGNEOUS AND METAMORPHIC PETROGRAPHY
Fundamentals of the origin of igneous and metamorphic rocks including an introduction to phase equilibria classification schemes and detailed hand-specimen and microscopic examination of these important rock types. Pre: GEOL 4504. (2H,6L,4C)

4714: VOLCANOES AND VOLCANIC PROCESSES
Study of characteristics and mechanisms of volcanic phenomena, including magma dynamics, origin and chemistry of lavas, physics of eruptions, and characteristics of volcanic products, particularly pyroclastic deposits. Includes focus on volcanism as a general planetary process, on terrestrial tectonic settings of volcanism and on volcanic hazards. Pre: 3704. (2H,3L,3C)

4804: GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY
Physical principles of groundwater flow, including application of analytical solutions to real-world problems. Well hydraulics. Geologic controls on groundwater flow. Pre: 1014, PHYS 2205 or PHYS 2305, MATH 1206. (2H,3L,3C)

4964: FIELD STUDY
Pass/Fail only. Variable credit course.

4974: INDEPENDENT STUDY
Variable credit course.

4984: SPECIAL STUDY
Variable credit course.

4994: UNDERGRADUATE RESEARCH
May be repeated for a maximum of 4 credits. Variable credit course.

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Virginia Tech 2006-2007 Undergraduate Course Catalog and Academic Policies